7 Corporal Punishment and School Pupils Retention United Nations 2008 survey to

7 corporal punishment and school pupils retention

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7. Corporal Punishment and School Pupils’ Retention United Nations’ (2008) survey to determine the use of corporal punishment reports that 35000 school children in Pakistan dropout from school each year due to corporal punishment. Such beatings at schools are also responsible for one of the highest dropout rates in the world, which stands at 50% during the first five years of education. Dropping out is a term used to describe the withdrawal of pupils from school prematurely. The report by the United Nations exposes the retrogressive nature of corporal punishment to the education process of the young children. When pupils leave school at such a tender age then the foundational purpose of the education process would have been entirely defeated. Stearns and Glennie (2006), note that factors internal to the school, such as disciplinary policies, in particular corporal punishment or conflicts with students might serve to push students out of school. Pupils who dropout from school have nothing to show for the time that they spent at school due to absence of any graduation certificate to substantiate that they have been to school (Ajaja, 2012). Consequently, such people have limited participation in pertinent societal decision making processes e.g. in politics. Instead of them contributing meaningfully for the development of the nation they become liabilities and exert pressure on the demand for social services from the government (Azzam, 2007). Smart et al’s (2008) research from the longitudinal study of Australian children shows that inconsistent parenting is strongly associated with behavioural problems in children, including conduct problems, low pro-social behaviour, hyperactivity, emotional difficulties and problems relating with peers. The inconsistent treatment given to the pupils can also be in form of corporal punishment administered at school for misbehaviour while facing nothing of that sort at home. Such inconsistence between the home and the school can be the best explanation for school dropouts related to corporal punishment. The school becomes a more harshplace than the home and refuge is sought at home, leading to dropouts. This can also be in contrast to the pupils coming from a cultural background where corporal punishment for wrongdoers is cherished and used to achieve justice. Such pupils find nothing absurd about it. The effectiveness of corporal punishment is affected and therefore associated with cultural persuasion.
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ISSN 2039-2117 (online) ISSN 2039-9340 (print) Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy Vol 5 No 9 May 2014 499 8. Corporal Punishment and Cognitive Development Straus (2001:53) says, “Verbal disciplinary methods that include explanation and reasoning provide the child with more cognitive stimulus.” Pupils who are anxious about being physically punished are prohibited from exploring their physical and social worlds from which they learn and as a result they are less likely to extend their cognitive skills. In other words, pupils’ cognitive development is deterred or impaired by fear when corporal punishment is used. Neuter (2011) contends that teacher-pupils relations are very important for the child’s cognitive development. The social perspective on development also suggests that children’s cognitive development emerges out of social interaction. This interaction
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