After the instruments and trocars, as well as the camera, were withdrawn from the incision sites, a skin incision was made between the epigastric site and the superior right upper quadrant 5-mm port site. The peritoneum was safely entered through this right subcostal incision. A Michotte retractor was placed cranially in order to retract the superior part of the operative field. Prior to opening the subcostal incision, the umbilical port site was closed at the fascial layer using a figure-of-eight suture. With the Michotte retractor in place, the superior portion of the wound was retracted open and several Mikulicz pads were placed within the abdomen to push the small bowel, colon, and stomach away from the operative field. A Kelly clamp was then placed over the fundus of the gallbladder and the peritoneum was scored with electrocautery. The gallbladder was then dissected off of the liver bed using electrocautery from the fundus down toward the neck. Portions of the peritoneal layer were approximately 1-cm thick. Several neovascularizations were noted within this thickened, inflammatory layer of tissue. Hemostasis was achieved using electrocautery. Several larger vessels from the neovascularization were ligated off with suture ties. Much of the gallbladder was shelled off of this inflammatory layer on the liver bed. The cystic artery was identified and ligated and divided between sutures. The cystic duct was also identified. The cystic duct/gallbladder neck junction was clearly identified in a retrograde fashion. The bottom of the gallbladder neck was clamped with a right-angle clamp, and the cystic duct/gallbladder neck junction was ligated with 2-0 silk tie. An additional 2-0 silk tie was placed to reinforce the ligature. The gallbladder was then resected and opened on the back table and sent to pathology. After successful resection of the gallbladder, the liver bed was inspected for any site of hemorrhage. The operative field was irrigated with antibiotic-soaked solution. A JP drain was then placed within the liver bed and brought out through the inferior right upper quadrant trocar site and secured to the skin with a suture. After adequate hemostasis was achieved and confirmed, the irrigation fluid was aspirated from the abdominal cavity and the surgical wound was closed using PDS sutures. The skin was approximated using a skin stapler. All of the wounds were dressed with sterile gauze and secured with Tegaderm dressing. The patient tolerated the procedure well and there were no complications. The patient was extubated at the end of the case. All sponge and instrument counts were correct at the end of the case. OUTPATIENT OFFICE ENCOUNTER Bernard Collins is a 75-year-old male who has a long history of trouble urinating, along with frequent urinary tract infections. One month ago, an IVP done on February 2, 2010 showed a distended urinary bladder with a large postvoid residual. His symptoms include hesitancy and a decrease in the strength and force of his urinary stream.
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- Summer '16