e) Energy resources : Growing energy needs, renewable and non renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources. Case studies. f) Land resources : Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion and desertification. 2. Conservation of natural resources Conservation of natural resources, is the wise use of the earth's resources by humanity. The various approaches applied to natural resource management include: Top-down (command and control) Community-based natural resource management Adaptive management Precautionary approach Integrated natural resource management Biodiversity Conservation Precautionary Biodiversity Management Concrete "policy tools" Land management 1. "Ecosystem based Management" including "more risk-averse and precautionary management", where "given prevailing uncertainty regarding ecosystem structure, function, and inter-specific interactions, precaution demands an ecosystem rather than single-species approach to management". 2. "Adaptive management" is "a management approach that expressly tackles the uncertainty and dynamism of complex systems". 3. "Environmental impact assessment" and exposure ratings decrease the "uncertainties" of precaution, even though it has deficiencies, and
4. "Protectionist approaches", which "most frequently links to" biodiversity conservation in natural resources management. 3. Structure and functions of any one of the ecosystem in details; Most important ecosystem is aquatic ecosystem, marine ecosystem and forest ecosystem. Components that make up the structural aspects of an ecosystem include: 1) Inorganic aspects – C, N, CO2, H2O. 2) Organic compounds – Protein, Carbohydrates, Lipids – link abiotic to bioticaspects. 3) Climatic regimes – Temperature, Moisture, Light & Topography. 4) Producers – Plants. 5) Macro consumers – Phagotrophs – Large animals. 6) Micro consumers – Saprotrophs, absorbers – fungi. Functional aspects 1) Energy cycles. 2) Food chains. 3) Diversity-interlinkages between organisms. 4) Nutrient cycles-biogeochemical cycles. 5) Evolution. 4. Producers, Consumers and Decomposers-Details with examples Plants are the ‘producers’ in the ecosystem as they manufacture their food by using ene rgy from the sun. Primary producers are organisms in an ecosystem that produce biomass from inorganic compounds (autotrophs). In almost all cases these are photosynthetically active organisms (plants, cyanobacteria and a number of other unicellular organisms; see article on photosynthesis). Consumers are organisms of an ecological food chain that receive energy by consuming other organisms. These organisms are formally referred to as heterotrophs, which include animals, bacteria and fungus. Such organisms may consume by various means, including predation, parasitization, and biodegradation.
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