Once a problem has been recognized it should be

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Once a problem has been recognized, it should be carefully defined. Failure to attain a clear  definition of a problem will always result in obtaining unsuccessful solutions or you may end up  solving “some” problem but not the one that you were trying to solve. In many situations, defining the problem will be the most difficult phase in decision-making. But once you have correctly defined the problem, the rest will be relatively easy. There are three rules that must be followed in defining the problem. 2)      the definition should not be too general.  This is true because if the definition is too broad, the  guidelines for a solution will be too broad, and the investigation may flounder. Large problems can  be very real, but their solution usually requires breaking them down into smaller, clearly defined  segments in order to solve them one at a time.     1.   the definition should not be too specific.  A definition of a problem is said to be too specific when it unnecessarily restricts alternative solutions. When the definition of the problem is too specific, it will always lead to temporary solutions because it will have ignored other  significant aspects that led to its emergence.  2. the definition should not in itself constitute a “solution” to the problem.  Suppose that in  each year, there is a problem of mass drop-out of Masters Students in the School of  Humanities and Social Sciences at Kenyatta university in Kenya, and the Dean of School  defines the problem as due to lack of scholarships and/or financial limitations on the part of  students. The Dean’s definition would in itself have contained the “solution” that more  scholarships and financial assistance be extended to masters program students, the result of which rule out other solutions for consideration.   The second phase in problem solving is the  gathering of information.  Once a problem is explicitly  defined, one should begin to gather information about it. The information may be of many kinds. The  detective may call his or her information “clues”; the doctor speak of “symptoms”; the scientist, of  “data”; the layperson or government leader, of “facts.” Adequate and accurate information is  essential to sound decisions. In general, the more information you have on which to base your  decision, the more likely it is that the decision will be sound.
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The third phase of decision-making is the  formation of tentative conclusions  which represent  solutions to the problem. This can be done as soon as we have enough information to suggest some possible answers. Solutions at this stage are only tentative and so we shouldn’t allow ourselves to 
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