Criticisms of psychoanalytic theory freud has exerted

This preview shows page 66 - 69 out of 80 pages.

Criticisms of Psychoanalytic Theory Freud has exerted a profound influence on conceptions of the mind o And many of his terms and concepts have entered the psyche of the general population However, lots of problems with his theory!!! o Unfalsifiability “reaction formation” The little boy who says he doesn’t love his mother is stressed by the fact that he does! o Failed predictions For example, no relation between toilet training and later personality Freud’s Followers Neo-Freudian theories o Jung, Horney, others Derived from Freud’s model: o Emphasize unconscious influences on behavior o Early experiences are important in shaping personality o Place less emphasis on sexuality as a driving force in personality Jung’s “collective unconscious” o Shared memories and characteristics passed down across the generations Behavioral Views of Personality Behaviorists believe personality is controlled by o Genetic factors o Contingencies (reinforcers / punishers) Positively reinforced behavior should be repeated Determinists o Believe all our actions are products of preexisting casual influences No “thinking” involved Believe “unconscious” variables that play a role in causing behavior lie outside, not inside o In other words, environmental triggers we may not be aware of what causes us to behave in a certain fashion
Not UNCONSCIOUS INTERNAL forced (as Freud thought) Humanistic Model of Personality Core motive in personality is self-actualization: o The drive to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent Carl Rogers o Personalities consist of three major components: o Organism – genetic blueprint o Self – self concept o Conditions of worth – expectations we place on ourselves for appropriate and inappropriate behavior Trait Theories Big Five Personality Factors o Traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analysis of personality measures o Uncovered using “lexical” approach Most crucial features pf personality are embedded in language The “OCEAN” o Openness Intellectually curious o Conscientiousness Care and responsible o Extraversion (vs. Introversion) Social and lively o Agreeableness (vs. Aggressiveness) Friendly, and easy to get along with o Neuroticism Tense and moody Personality Assessment How do we “test” personality? o All sorts of ways Projectives o Ambiguous / unclear stimuli Structured personality tests- o Paper-and-pencil tests consisting of questions that respondents answer in one of a few fixed ways Most frequently utilized form of testing today! Projective tests o Consist of ambiguous stimuli that examinees must interpret
o Utilized frequently from the 30’s through the 70’s Projective hypothesis o Examines project aspects of their own personality onto the ambiguous stimulus Rorschach Inkblot Test Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) House Tree Person (HTP) Sentence Completion Lack “incremental validity” o Don’t typically add much in terms of information to MMPI (or other tests) MMPI

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture