Unit 8 covalent bonds p 7 27 the oxygen molecule

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Unit 8 Covalent bonds P. 7 / 27 The oxygen molecule Formation of covalent bond in an oxygen molecule (only electrons in the outermost shell are shown) An oxygen atom has an electronic arrangement of 2,6.  To obtain the electronic arrangement of a stable neon atom (2,8) needs two more electrons shares two of its electrons with another oxygen atom Double bond ( 共共 — a bond in which two pairs of electrons are  shared 8.2  Covalent bonds in non-metallic elements 8.2  Covalent bonds in non-metallic elements  (p. 96)  (p. 96)
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Unit 8 Covalent bonds P. 8 / 27 The nitrogen molecule Formation of covalent bond in a nitrogen molecule (only electrons in the outermost shell are shown) A nitrogen atom has an electronic arrangement of 2,5.  To obtain the electronic arrangement of a stable neon atom (2,8) needs three more electrons shares three of its electrons with another nitrogen atom Triple bond ( 共共 — a bond in which three pairs of electrons are  shared 8.2  Covalent bonds in non-metallic elements 8.2  Covalent bonds in non-metallic elements  (p. 96)  (p. 96)
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Unit 8 Covalent bonds P. 9 / 27 Simplified representation 8.2  Covalent bonds in non-metallic elements 8.2  Covalent bonds in non-metallic elements  (p. 96)  (p. 96)
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Unit 8 Covalent bonds P. 10 / 27 Models of molecules We can build models of the molecules. The simplest models are  ball-and-stick models. Ball-and-stick models of some molecules Space-filling models of some molecules 8.2  Covalent bonds in non-metallic elements 8.2  Covalent bonds in non-metallic elements  (p. 96)  (p. 96)
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Unit 8 Covalent bonds P. 11 / 27 8.3 Covalent compounds 8.3 Covalent compounds  (p. 100)  (p. 100) In  covalent compounds ( 共共共共共 ),  atoms of different elements  share electrons with each other. The number of electrons contributed by an atom for sharing is  equal to what that atom needs to obtain a stable electronic  arrangement. Examples
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Unit 8 Covalent bonds P. 12 / 27 Examples 8.3 Covalent compounds 8.3 Covalent compounds  (p. 100)  (p. 100)
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Unit 8 Covalent bonds P. 13 / 27 Examples 8.3 Covalent compounds 8.3 Covalent compounds  (p. 100)  (p. 100)
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Unit 8 Covalent bonds P. 14 / 27 Number of electron(s) contributed for sharing by atoms of Period 2 non- metals during covalent bond formation Period 2 non- metal C N O F Electronic  arrangement of  atom 2,4 2,5 2,6 2,7 Number of  electron(s) needed  to obtain the  electronic  arrangement of a  noble gas atom 4 3 2 1 Number of  electron(s)  contributed for  sharing 4 3 2 1 8.3 Covalent compounds 8.3 Covalent compounds  (p. 100)  (p. 100)
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Unit 8 Covalent bonds P. 15 / 27 8.4 8.4 Writing chemical formulae of covalent  Writing chemical formulae of covalent  compounds compounds  (p. 106)  (p. 106)
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