Chemistry_Grade_10-12 (1).pdf

43 what happens when atoms bond a chemical bond is

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4.3 What happens when atoms bond? A chemical bond is formed when atoms are held together by attractive forces. This attraction occurs when electrons are shared between atoms, or when electrons are exchanged between the atoms that are involved in the bond. The sharing or exchange of electrons takes place so that the outer energy levels of the atoms involved are filled and the atoms are more stable. If an electron is shared , it means that it will spend its time moving in the electron orbitals around both atoms. If an electron is exchanged it means that it is transferred from one atom to another, in other words one atom gains an electron while the other loses an electron. Definition: Chemical bond A chemical bond is the physical process that causes atoms and molecules to be attracted to each other, and held together in more stable chemical compounds. The type of bond that is formed depends on the elements that are involved. In this section, we will be looking at three types of chemical bonding: covalent , ionic and metallic bonding . You need to remember that it is the valence electrons that are involved in bonding and that atoms will try to fill their outer energy levels so that they are more stable. 4.4 Covalent Bonding 4.4.1 The nature of the covalent bond Covalent bonding occurs between the atoms of non-metals . The outermost orbitals of the atoms overlap so that unpaired electrons in each of the bonding atoms can be shared. By overlapping orbitals, the outer energy shells of all the bonding atoms are filled. The shared electrons move in the orbitals around both atoms. As they move, there is an attraction between these negatively charged electrons and the positively charged nuclei, and this force holds the atoms together in a covalent bond. Definition: Covalent bond Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding where pairs of electrons are shared between atoms. Below are a few examples. Remember that it is only the valence electrons that are involved in bonding, and so when diagrams are drawn to show what is happening during bonding, it is only these electrons that are shown. Circles and crosses represent electrons in different atoms. Worked Example 5: Covalent bonding 65
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4.4 CHAPTER 4. ATOMIC COMBINATIONS - GRADE 11 Question: How do hydrogen and chlorine atoms bond covalently in a molecule of hydrogen chloride? Answer Step 1 : Determine the electron configuration of each of the bonding atoms. A chlorine atom has 17 electrons, and an electron configuration of 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 . A hydrogen atom has only 1 electron, and an electron configuration of 1s 1 . Step 2 : Determine the number of valence electrons for each atom, and how many of the electrons are paired or unpaired. Chlorine has 7 valence electrons. One of these electrons is unpaired. Hydrogen has 1 valence electron and it is unpaired.
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