or to summarise the content of a lesson. Emphasise and repeat key words of the lesson as you teach. This cues the child about what to remember and how the words sound. 2.4 Which Swiss developmental psychologist formulated a theory of how children think? (1) Jean Piaget  Question 3 Natural science is, by its very nature, closely linked to environmental education. All teachers are being called upon to increase environmental awareness among learners. 3.1 List three environmental problems that occur in the vicinity where you live and/or work (3) Examples of environmental problems are - Water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution, oil pollution 3.2 Describe what people do to cause each environmental problem that you have mentioned in question 3.1 (3) Examples of what people do Water pollution- industrial waste; air pollution-traffic; soil pollution-rubbish; oil pollution-oil 3.3 How would you make learners aware of environmental problems and of the need to address such problems? (4) By ensuring thatthe lesson that integrates environmental education adheres to the following criteria: The lesson must therefore expand or reinforce the children's scientific knowledge and/or skills. The lesson must not be too elementary or too advanced for the specific grade. All prerequisite and/or new scientific concepts must first be explained. Do not expect independent learning from children or that they re-invent the wheel. Follow-up learning activities must not involve too much independent research from the learners. (4)  Question 4 In the case of hands-on activities teaching strategy, the learners carry out the
experiments themselves. They learn through the teacher’s guidance and their own direct experience. This8 is a pupil-cantered strategy. Discuss the hands on teaching strategy under the following subheadings - How the teacher can be in control of all learners all of the time (5) cannot leave the class even for a moment must supervise specimen distribution and collection from the front of the class without turning his or her back on the group until the work has begun must keep a close watch on what each learner is doing during the lesson should have a prearranged signal (bell) to indicate when all talking should stop should have an emergency plan for stopping the lesson if the class fails to cooperate - How the teacher can help learners attend to relevant things (3) The teacher should clearly state: the purpose of the activities the things to be attended to the things to be looked for - The duties of the science teacher during hand-on activities (5) He or she must ensure that the learners have acquired the necessary prior knowledge so that they can understand the purpose of the activity. The teacher must help and guide the children. In other words, a learning activity must not involve too much independent effort from the learners. They still lack the knowledge, research skills and/or perseverance to learn without a teacher's guidance and help. The teacher must give clear instructions to the learners. The teacher must carefully structure the lesson and the learning activities and guide the children's attention to the relevant matters.