The groups would also lobby individual senators in

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educate and influence public opinion. The groups would also lobby individual senators. In 1912, liberal and labor interest groups mounted a campaigning against Mahlon Pitney, who was nominated by President Taft; this delayed his confirmation for almost an entire month (Abraham 137). Eventually, though, interest groups took a more direct approach to informing senators and actually began testifying before the Judiciary Committee, just like the actual nominees did. The American Federal of Labor and the National Association of the Advancement of Colored People were the first interest groups to testify before the Committee against the nomination of John J. Parker in 1930 (Maltese 57; Abraham 158). The AFL opposed Parker because he allowed yellow dog contracts 14 and ruled against the formation of 14 A yellow dog contract is an agreement between employer and employee where the employee agrees not to become a member of a labor union.
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32 unionization in a lower court ruling (Maltese 56); Parker publicly defended himself by claiming that he was following Supreme Court precedent and that the decision did not reflect his personal philosophies. The NAACP opposed Parker because of supposedly racist statements he made during a North Carolina gubernatorial race (Maltese 59). Parker never responded to the accusations that he was racist and the NAACP took the lack of defense as proof that he, in fact, was racist. Although eventually successful, the AFL and NAACP never combined forces; they each fought separately against the Parker nomination. From this episode until 1971, interest groups continued using the public forum and traditional lobbying techniques to influence confirmations, while only sporadically testifying in the Senate; however, from 1971 forward, interest groups have testified in all nominations (Maltese 86). During this time, interest groups began using the judicial system to advance their causes in other areas as well. Often, interest groups are formed to support a minority viewpoint that receives little recognition elsewhere. The judicial branch, by design, is set up to defend such minority rights that those interest groups also seek to protect. It was only a matter of time before interest groups would use the courts to advance their causes. This was especially true during the Warren Court era (1953- 1969). The Warren Court is, historically, the most liberal Court, and its opinions focused on expanding individual rights and liberties. Interest groups began actively sponsoring test cases to bring before the Court during that time. One of the first successful of such cases, Shelley vs. Kraemer (1948), was argued by the NAACP (Abraham 194; Williams 150). The NAACP pioneered the judicial branch approach to gain the ends they sought.
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33 At the same time, the NAACP knew they needed sympathetic justices on the Court in order to continue winning their cases. Because of such, they continued, along with barrages of other interest groups, lobbying senators and testifying before the Senate Judiciary Committee.
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