Course Hero Logo

Orient their attention damage to either the parietal

Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. This preview shows page 4 - 6 out of 7 pages.

orient their attention. Damage to either the parietal lobe or the midbrain did not affectresponses once attention had been cued to the target location; therefore, the pulvinar seemsresponsible for our ability to engage the target (Posner, 1995).These findings suggest a specific anatomical circuitry for covert shifts of attention. The parietallobe is responsible for disengaging attention, the midbrain for moving attention and thepulvinar nucleus for engaging attention onto a new target. These three brain regions worktogether in a network allowing us to covertly shift our attention.Endogenous vs. Exogenous Orienting of Attention
A distinction can also be drawn between directing attention to an expected event(endogenousor voluntary orienting) and directing attention in response to an abrupt stimulusevent (exogenousor reflexive orienting). Therefore, while you may be voluntarily attending to aspecific word on a page, your attention would be reflexively grabbed if the phone happened toring. In experimental paradigms, the typical way of producing these two different forms oforienting is by using predictive central cues for endogenous orienting and nonpredictiveperipheral cues for exogenous orienting. When a central arrow points to where a target event islikely to occur, attention is oriented to the predicted location, and the orienting that results isconsidered voluntary. However, if a peripheral box brightens and attention is drawn to that box,even though the target is no more likely to occur there than at another location, the orienting isconsidered reflexive.Space- and Object-Based Attentional SystemsTwo other modules in selective attention are the space-based and object-based attentionalsystems. As previously mentioned, the main difference between these systems lies in what weorient our attention towards: either specific locations in space or specific objects. Some theoriesof selective attention are referred to as space-based, since they propose that attention isallocated to specific locations in space. Therefore, attention can be thought of as a “spotlight”or “zoom lens”—with stimuli that come into this spotlight receiving attention and thereforemore elaborate processing.Posner (1980) used a now-standard reflexive cueing paradigm to demonstrate how space- basedattention might operate. The paradigm consists of one fixation box placed in a central locationon which the subject is instructed to fixate their attention. A similar box (peripheral cue) thenappears either to the right or left of the fixation box and then a target (i.e. ‘*’ ) appears in eitherthe central or peripheral box equiprobably. The subject is required to respond to the target asquickly as possible by pressing a key. It was found that subjects were significantly faster torespond to the target when it appeared in the cued peripheral box, as compared to when thetarget appeared in the central uncued box, even though the cue was not indicative of where the

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 7 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Winter
Professor
Beninger
Tags
Disorders of Attention

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture