Individual- Advantages : contribution to raise productivity, lower production cost, increase earnings of workers. Less direct supervision required to maintain reasonable level of output. Enable labor costs to be estimated more accurately that under payment by time Disadvantages: greater conflict between workers trying to maximize output and managers concerned about quality of work, new technology resisted by employees, reduced willingness to help coworkers Team- 5. Ch. 11 1. Ranking: rater compares employees against each other ex. straight, alternation, paired comparison Rating: rater evaluates employees on some absolute standard Essay: rater answers open-ended questions in essay form describing employee performance 2. Supervisors o They assign the work, have experience in conducting appraisals, and are more reliable
o Prone to halo and leniency • Peers o Little experience in conducting appraisals; lenient; can create group tensions • Self o More lenient and unreliable o Helpful for development 3. Rater error training (least effective): Reduce psychometric errors by familiarizing raters with their existence Performance dimension training: exposes supervisors to performance dimensions used Performance standard training: provides raters with a standard or “frame of reference” for making appraisal 4. Halo/Horns, First impression, Recency, Leniency, Severity, Central tendency, Clone or similar to me, Spillover 5. Provide specific written instructions (incl. training) on how to complete appraisal ,Clear criteria for evaluating performance - dimensions should be written, objective, and clear, Provide a rational foundation for personnel decisions via adequately developed job descriptions, Require supervisors to provide feedback about appraisal results to employees, Incorporate a review of performance ratings by higher-level supervisors , Consistent treatment across raters, regardless of race, color, religion, sex, and national origin should be evident 6. Provide equal increase to all employees regardless of performance (general increase, Cost of living or across the board adjustments) 7.What should the poorest performer be paid as an increase? How much should the average or top performers be paid as an increase? What should be the size of the percentage increase differential between the different levels of performance? 1. WWII wage and price controls, Employer Impetus (satisfaction, performance), Unions, Gov’t Impetus, Cost (tax) effectiveness of benefits
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- Fall '12