military power He also felt that domestic threats were more significant than foreign threats. The KMT’s focus was on the CCP. They believed that the Communists would be a big threat to their existence and they attempted to “exterminate the bandits” (the CCP, that is) 1936 Xian Incident Zhang Xueliang was a young warlord, VP of the KMT and the son of an influential warlord who was assassinated by the Japanese Zhang invited Chiang to his home then kidnapped Chiang and forced him to fight against the Japanese o KMT during the WW2
The KMT led the war against Japan which began after a small skirmish called the Marco-Polo Bridge Incident (1937) During the war era, the KMT collaborated with the CCP (at least nominally). Received a lot of international support from the US and the Soviet Union o The KMT during the Civil War (1945-1949) After the foreign enemy was defeated, attention turned to domestic conflict KMT lost this Civil War, which was a big surprise to everyone in the world, including the US. Even the Soviet Union thought that the KMT would win. Possible reasons o KMT lost popular support Appeasement, New Life movement, inflation, corruption had eroded public opinion The majority of China—poor people—supported the ideology of the CCP o Low military morale after the Northern Expedition and the Second World War o Communist Party used effective tactics KMT retreated to Taiwan in 1949 o The CCP: Early Period Founded by two intellectuals, Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao in 1921, both professors at Peking University Influenced by the Russian Bolshevik Revolution as well as Marxist- Leninist thought Only 13 members in the first meeting (over 86 million by 2014) Got support from The Communist International (Comintern), an organization based in Moscow which was started by Lenin to support communist revolutions around the world During the Northern Expedition, the CCP collaborated but was then purged by the KMT o CCP: The Jiangxi Period After the purge, a small group of CCP’ers moved to Jiangxi Mao and others established a party military branch in 1927 Began the tradition of having the party control the military, a practice which lasts until the day From 1931 to 1934, the CCP established a de facto government in Jiangxi, the “Jiangxi Soviet” One of the most important policies during this era was land reform (forced redistribution), which mobilized peasants and won support for the CCP o This Jiangxi government did not last very long. The KMTs “Exterminate the Bandits” campaign (which epitomized an era during which the KMT treated the
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