Took prep courses scored lower than students who

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took prep courses scored lower than students who didn’t take prep courses. The study concluded “the coaching industry is playing on parental anxiety.” However, the comparison is not based non-equivalent samples of students. Students who didn’t even bother taking a prep course might be much stronger academically than students who opted to take such a course. No coaching coached difference VSAT 649 611 +38 MSA T 685 660 +25
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watch out for unrepresentative samples Non-random samples: voting on the American Idol show phone calls or emails to a politician about a particular bill testimonials on infomercials talk radio callers To be truly valid a sample must be: random representative sufficient
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Correct interpretation? Does owning a gun make it more likely you’ll be killed? get you killed? gun owners are 2.7 times more likely to be murdered than non-owners. (Arthur Kellermann et. al., "Gun Ownership as a Risk Factor for Homicide in the Home," The New England Journal of Medicine, October 7, 1993, pp. 1084-1091) Does this prove it is safer not to have guns in the house? It may be true that guns cause murders, but it also might be true that having a greater risk of being murdered causes people to own guns.
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not defining the units to be counted clearly example: statistics on “juvenile violence” the legal ages of juveniles vary from state to state, as do the ages at which juveniles may be tried as adults. example: comparing “unemployment” rates in two countries The definitions of unemployed may not be the same. In the U.S., people who are under- employed, or having stopped looking for work aren’t counted. example: statistics on “child abductions” can refer to kidnappings by strangers or parental custody disputes
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Not defining the units clearly Report: 1 in 50 U.S. children face homelessness “OVER 1.5 MILLION OF OUR NATION’S CHILDREN GO TO SLEEP WITHOUT A HOME EACH YEAR.” The report, by the National Center on Family Homelessness, analyzed data from 2005-06 and found that more than 1.5 million children were without a home. By “each year,” they mean “at least one night a year.” But what does “without a home” mean? “Sharing the housing of other persons due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or a similar reason (sometimes referred to as doubled-up); • Living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, or camping grounds due to lack of alternative accommodations” if you did any of the above for one night out of a year, you are counted by the National Center on Family Homelessness as “homeless.”
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06/20/13 Orrange_MGQ606 13 Deaths Due to Unexpected Events, by Type of Event, Selected Countries: Mid - 1970's (Rate per 100,000 population) Country Total Unexpected Deaths Transport Accidents Natural Factors Industrial Accidents Homicides Other Causes Austria 75.2 34.8 29.7 4.3 1.6 4.8 Belgium 62.6 25.0 25.8 1.5 0.9 9.4 Canada 62.1 30.9 18.0 3.9 2.5 6.8 Denmark 41.1 18.3 15.6 1.0 0.7 5.5 Finalnd 62.3 23.7 26.0 2.9 3.0 7.1 France 77.8 24.0 31.0 1.0 0.9 21.1 Germany 66.4 24.8 31.6 1.8 1.2 7.0 Ireland 48.6 19.8 20.1 1.9 1.0 5.8 Italy 47.2 22.8 19.2 1.9 1.1 2.2 Japan 30.5
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  • Spring '09
  • Orrange
  • Margin of error, Ross Perot, Napoleon I of France, unexpected events

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