DSST Fundamentals of counseling study sheet

His ideas have had an enormous influence on western

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in 1903. His ideas have had an enormous influence on Western thought, but they continue to be controversial today. Jung, Carl - (1875–1961) A Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist who was a friend and follower of Freud. Jung broke away from Freud in the early 1910s because of a bitter theoretical disagreement and began his own school of thought, which he called analytical psychology. Jung believed that Freud placed too much emphasis on the sexual drive of humans. He thought the will to live was a stronger motivation than sexual drive. Jung also disagreed with Freud about the nature of the unconscious mind. He thought that in addition to the personal unconscious, there is a collective unconscious that contains universal human memories. Pavlov, Ivan - (1849–1936) A doctor best known for his research on the conditioned reflex. Pavlov made his most famous discovery while studying how dog saliva related to the function of the stomach. He found that when he repeatedly gave a dog food after ringing a bell, the dog began to salivate for false alarms too. The bell rang, and the dog salivated, even with no food in sight. Pavlov won a Nobel Prize for his work in 1904. Piaget, Jean - (1896–1980) A pioneer in the field of child psychology. Piaget argued that children develop their thinking capacity in stages and that the progression through these stages depends on a genetically determined timetable. His research changed the way people viewed education, showing that children actively explore the world and develop their own hypotheses about what they observe. In 1923, he published The Language and Thought of the Child , the first of his many psychology books. Rogers, Carl - (1902–1987) An American psychologist who proposed the person-centered or client-centered theory of psychology. Rogers asserted that people’s self-concepts determine their behavior and relationships
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with others. Rogers also believed that the relationship between a therapist and client was crucial in the treatment of psychological disorders. He thought that a therapist’s unconditional positive regard could help clients to undergo psychotherapeutic personality change. Skinner, B. F. - (1904–1990) A psychologist who built on Pavlov’s work to develop theories of operant behavior. Skinner wrote The Behavior of Organisms in 1938, in which he described his work on operant behavior. He wrote several other books as well, including a popular though controversial novel, Walden Two . Skinner studied operant conditioning by using the Skinner box. Murray Bowen – (1913-1990)Murray Bowen grew up in a small town that he believed gave him the foundation for his theories on family therapy . To Bowen, the family was an emotional unit; although it was made up of individuals who had their own thoughts and needs, much of how they behaved was the result of how they functioned as part of the family. He studied psychoanalysis for several years. Eventually he came to believe that, despite Freud's success, his methods fell short in one important regard: recognizing the family as a unit with its own emotional needs and behaviors. Whereas Freud focused on the self, Bowen saw the family as
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His ideas have had an enormous influence on Western thought...

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