from the capture device and transferring them to the transport cages DeNicola

From the capture device and transferring them to the

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from the capture device and transferring them to the transport cages (DeNicola and Swihart 1997). Most deer immobilization drugs are classified as controlled substances, and their use requires U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency licenses. After administering immobilizing drugs, ophthalmic ointment should be applied to prevent ocular desiccation, and masks should be placed over the eyes. During recovery, deer should be positioned sternally or on their right side to avoid bloat. Efforts should be made to minimize noise during handling procedures until the deer is fully immobilized. Deer may be given sodium bicarbonate, selenium/vitamin E supplements, and/or antibiotics before release (although such treatments are not always effective). During transportation, deer should not be over-crowded and should be kept in the dark. Antlers should be removed from males, or they should be contained separately. Prior to release, if the trans- port time is minimal, immobilizations can be reversed with an intravenous injection of antagonists (Mech et al. 1985, Kreeger et al. 1986). Avoid capturing and handling deer under extreme weather conditions (e.g., cold rain, low temperatures [less than ten degrees Fahrenheit] with high winds, or hot temperatures [more than 85 degrees Fahrenheit]). Trap and Euthanasia Capture with box traps, Clover traps, drop nets, or rocket nets followed by euthanasia has been assessed or considered in only a few locations (Jordan et al. 1995). This technique can be used in areas where there is a concern about the discharge of firearms or in areas with very high deer densities to complement a sharpshooting program. This method, however, is inefficient and expensive, with costs likely exceeding $300 per deer. Physical restraint and euthanasia of deer in traps is sometimes preferred over chemical means because it allows for the consumption of meat from the deer. Deer are greatly stressed, however, during the restraint phase of the capturing process (DeNicola and Swihart 1997). Only trained personnel should euthanize cap- tured deer by administering either a gunshot or a pen- etrating captive bolt to the head. Sharpshooting Several communities have employed trained, experi- enced personnel to lethally remove deer through sharpshooting (Figure 17) with considerable success (Deblinger et al. 1995, Drummond 1995, Jones and Witham 1995, Stradtmann et al. 1995, Ver Steeg et al. 1995, Butfiloski et al. 1997, DeNicola et al. 1997c). A variety of techniques can be used in sharp-
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Managing White-Tailed Deer in Suburban Environments 27 shooting programs to maximize safety, humaneness, discretion, and efficiency. The cost per deer for sharp- shooting programs has varied, ranging from $91 to $310 per deer. Human safety concerns are often associated with the discharge of firearms in suburban landscapes. The noise associated with discharging firearms after dark in suburban areas must be considered when develop- ing a sharpshooting program. Often the negative pub- lic reaction to sharpshooting is minimal if firearms are fitted with suppressors. Also, perceptions of public
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