Separation of powers
– an essential principle of the first American state constitutions and the U.S.
Constitution according to which the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government are
assigned to three distinct institutions.
Enumeration of powers –
listing of powers. The enumerated powers in the Constitution are the 17
express powers that Article I, Section 9, of the Constitution specifically grants to Congress.
Article I - the legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in Congress
– powers are divided and shared among local and national authorities (the middle form
between confederal and unitary)
Articles of Confederation
– the first national constitution for the United States. In force from 1781 to
1789, it created a single-branch national government (Congress) in which each state had one vote.
– proposed in The Federalist papers by Madison who wanted the new
Constitution ratified. #51 sells the concept that we don’t just have one republic with one government
but we have ‘two distinct governments’ and then those are divided into departments (governor,
legislator, cabinet, state court, etc.). The states provide the necessary check on the federal and vice
versa. A compound republic is a combination between a Confederation and a Unitary form of
government. Closely related to federalism.
Energy in the executive
– Federalist #70 titled “The Executive Department Further Considered,” is
an essay written by Hamilton arguing for unitary executive provided for in the U.S. Constitution.