Protestant reformation divided societies fractured

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Protestant ReformationDivided societies + fractured political systems +religious differences = violence!1562-1598: France was torn apart by violence b/tCatholics & Protestant HuguenotsEdict of Nantes: guaranteed religious toleration forFrench Protestants1618-1648: 30 Years’ War engulfed most of Europe &was massively destructive to property & populationsPeace of Westphalia: ended the conflict, redrew somestate boundaries, each European state was sovereign &had the authority to control religious affairs in itsterritory
Counter Reformation1545-1563: Council of TrentCatholic Church reaffirmed its unique doctrines & practicesAuthority of the popePriestly celibacyMonastic lifeVeneration of saints & relicsImportance of good worksCorrected abuses & corruptionCracked down on dissidentsRenewed focus on individual spirituality & pietyCreation of new religious orders like the JesuitsA brotherhood of priests committed to the renewal & extension ofthe church & its beliefs
Protestant ReformationThough the Reformation was religious innature, it encouraged a skepticalattitude towards authority & traditionthroughout Europe.Skepticism & independent thought ledto questioning all conventional religion& opened space for new directions inEuropean intellectual lifeScientific Revolution & Enlightenment
Christianity: Outward BoundChristianity both motivated & benefitedfrom European political & economicexpansionGlobalization of Christianity wassupported by the creation of empiresSettlers & traders brought their faith withthemAttempted to replicate it in their newhomes
Spread of ChristianityProtestants in NorthAmericaEmphasis was oneducation, moral purity,& civic responsibilityNo tolerance forcompeting faithsLittle interest inconverting natives – justpushing them off of theirancestral homelandsCatholicsMainly responsible forspreading the Christianmessage beyond Europethrough organized monasticorders, trade, & conquest:Dominicans, Franciscans, Jesuits& Portuguese in Asia & AfricaSpanish & French in the AmericasEastern Orthodox in Siberia & theRussian Empire
Conversion& Adaptation inSpanish AmericaEuropeans saw their military & economicsuccess in the Americas as a demonstration ofthe power & superiority of their GodNative Americans mostly agreedConquering people like the Aztecs & Incas had alwaysimposed their gods on defeated peoples, so thisimposition of Christianity was not a new practiceMillions accepted baptismEuropeans claimed to have exclusive religioustruth & sought to destroy local gods, shrines,temples, etc.
Conversion& Adaptation inSpanish AmericaHigh cost of conversion for nativewomen:Women who were previously shamans,priests, or other religious figures in theirnative religion had no role in the CatholicChurchConvent life was reserved for Spanishwomen in the Americas
Conversion& Adaptation inSpanish AmericaSome resistance to Christianity was seen, butwas quickly crushed by the colonial powersMore common were efforts to blend native

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Term
Summer
Professor
Maria
Tags
Christianity, Protestant Reformation, new way

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