the learned (conditioned) response (eg. salivation)Little Albert-Goal: create a fear of white rates in a child, Little Albert (LA), using classic conditioning-First, they tested LA’s fear of rats and other animals: none-Then, every time LA reached for a white rat, the experimenters made a loud noise behind his head-LA eventually learned to fear white rats; His fears generalized to similar objectsUS- loud noiseUR- fear reaction
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CS- white ratsCR- fear reactionTreatment for Alcoholism (application)-Drug that is taken that makes you sick if taken with alcohol-Eventually the thought/smell/taste of alcohol will make you feel nauseous -CS: nausea to alcohol (CR); US: nausea to drug (UR)Advertisements (application)-Beautiful person paired with an object (creates desire)-Consumer now will desire the object Processes in Classical Conditioning-Acquisition: initial learning of the response; when the CS paired repeatedly with the US.-Extinction:gradual weakening and disappearance of the response; when CS later presented repeatedly without the US.-Spontaneous Recovery:when an extinguished response reappears after some time has passed; first and second.-Note that spontaneous recovery gets weaker each time-Generalization: when conditioning ‘spreads’ to other stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus-Discrimination: subject responds to some stimuli but not others – can detect differences between stimuli-Higher-Order Conditioning: a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus; can then be used to condition other neutral stimuliWhat is actually learned in Classical Conditioning?-That one stimulus will follow another-Allows for predication – adaptive Preparedness: we biologically predisposed to acquire certain fears more readily than others;Genuine threats in our evolutionary historyModern threats not as easily fearedCounterconditioning-Using CC principles to lessen fear response-Pair the feared stimulus (CS) with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with the unwanted CR
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