Salivation little albert goal create a fear of white

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the learned (conditioned) response (eg. salivation) Little Albert - Goal: create a fear of white rates in a child, Little Albert (LA), using classic conditioning - First, they tested LA’s fear of rats and other animals: none - Then, every time LA reached for a white rat, the experimenters made a loud noise behind his head - LA eventually learned to fear white rats; His fears generalized to similar objects US- loud noise UR- fear reaction
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CS- white rats CR- fear reaction Treatment for Alcoholism (application) - Drug that is taken that makes you sick if taken with alcohol - Eventually the thought/smell/taste of alcohol will make you feel nauseous - CS: nausea to alcohol (CR); US: nausea to drug (UR) Advertisements (application) - Beautiful person paired with an object (creates desire) - Consumer now will desire the object Processes in Classical Conditioning - Acquisition: initial learning of the response; when the CS paired repeatedly with the US. - Extinction: gradual weakening and disappearance of the response; when CS later presented repeatedly without the US. - Spontaneous Recovery: when an extinguished response reappears after some time has passed; first and second. - Note that spontaneous recovery gets weaker each time - Generalization: when conditioning ‘spreads’ to other stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus - Discrimination: subject responds to some stimuli but not others – can detect differences between stimuli - Higher-Order Conditioning: a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus; can then be used to condition other neutral stimuli What is actually learned in Classical Conditioning? - That one stimulus will follow another - Allows for predication – adaptive Preparedness: we biologically predisposed to acquire certain fears more readily than others; Genuine threats in our evolutionary history Modern threats not as easily feared Counterconditioning - Using CC principles to lessen fear response - Pair the feared stimulus (CS) with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with the unwanted CR
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