Furthermore in more recent times the forms of invest ment have become more

Furthermore in more recent times the forms of invest

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wealth in Africa. Furthermore, in more recent times the forms of invest- ment have become more subtle and more dangerous. They include so- called aid and the management of local African companies by inter- national capitalist experts. Africa trades mainly with the countries of Western Europe, North America, and Japan. Africa is also diversifying its trade by dealing with socialist countries, and if that trade proves disadvantageous to the African economy, then the developed socialist countries will also have joined the ranks of the exploiters of Africa. However, it is very essential at this stage to draw a clear distinction between the capitalist countries and the socialist ones, because socialist countries have never at any time owned any part of the African continent nor do they invest in African economies in such a way as to expatriate profits from Africa. Therefore, socialist countries are not involved in the robbery of Africa. Most of the people who write about underdevelopment and who are read in the continents of Africa, Asia, and Latin America are spokesmen for the capitalist or bourgeois world. They seek to justify capitalist ex- ploitation both inside and outside their own countries. One of the things which they do to confuse the issue is to place all underdeveloped coun- tries in one camp and all developed countries in another camp irrespec- tive of different social systems; so that the terms capitalist and socialist never enter the discussion. Instead, one is faced with a simple division between the industrialized nations and those that are not industrialized. It is true that both the United States and the Soviet Union are industrialized and it is true that when one looks at the statistics, countries such as France,
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24 HOW EUROPE UNDERDEVELOPED AFRICA Norway, Czechoslovakia, and Rumania are much closer together than any one of them is to an African country. But it is absolutely necessary to determine whether the standard of livi ; in a given industrialized country is.a product of its own internal resoureês~õr~wlietherit'stems~'froig a ex- ploiting other countries. The United States has a small proportion of the world’s population ~and exploitable natural "wealth hut_ir enjoys a huge percentage of the wealth which comes from exploiting the labor »nd natural resources of the whole world. The erroneous views "about underdevelopment and the oversimplified distinction between rich and poor nations are opposed by socialist scholars both inside and outside the socialist countries. Those erroneous views are also being exposed by economists in underdeveloped countries who are discovering that the explanations offered by bourgeois scholars are ex- planations which suit the interests of those countries which exploit the rest of the world through trade and investment. One French socialist writer, Pierre Jalée, proposes that to obtain a proper perspective of relations between developed countries and underdeveloped ones, two categories should be set up, namely, imperialist and socialist The socialist camp
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