Starting in the 1890s state sponsored

This preview shows page 8 - 10 out of 19 pages.

Starting in the 1890s, state-sponsored industrialization led to the building of railroads and factories and stimulated the expansion of the steel, coal, and petroleum industries.But while the reforms strengthened the state, they did not enhance the lives of the common people. Workers in Russia were brutally exploited, even by the standards of the industrial revolution. Also, large landowners had kept most of the empire’s fertile land, and the peasants and to pay substantial redemption fees for the poorer-quality plots they received.Before long, in the press, courtrooms, and streets, men and women denounced the regime. Revolutionaries engaged in terror and assassination. -In 1881, a terrorist bomb killed the tsar.-In the 1890s, following a period of famine, the radical doctrines of Marxism gained popularity in Russia. Even aristocratic intellectuals lamented their despotic government.-Territorial ExpansionYet the critics of internal reform did not hold back the Russian expansionists, who believed they had to take over certain lands to keep them out of rivals’ hands. -Conquered the highland people of the Caucasus Mountains to prevent Ottomans and Persians from encroaching on Russia’s southern flank. -They battled the British over areas between Turkestan and British India, such as Persia (Iran) and Afghanistan.-Although some Russians moved to these lands, they never became a majority there. -The new provinces were multiethnic, multi religious communities that were only partially integrated into the Russia nation.Perhaps the most impressive Russian expansion occurred in East Asia, where the Amur River basin offered rich lands, mineral deposits, and access to the Pacific Ocean.-The Chinese also wanted to colonize this area, which lay just north of Manchuria. After 20 years of struggle, Russia claimed the land north and south of the Amur river and in 1860 founded Vladivostok, a port on the Pacific Ocean whose name signified “Rule of the East”.-Deciding to focus on these areas in Asia, the Russian government sold its 1 territory in North America (Alaska) to the US. Then, to link central Russia and the western part of the country to its East Asian spoils, the government began construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad. When it was completed in 1916, the new railroad bridged the east and the west. 8
Saturday, April 4, 2015-Governing a Diverse EmpireRussia was a huge empire whose rulers were only partially effective at integrating its diverse parts into a political community. -Unlike the US, which displaced or slaughtered native populations during its expansion across an entire continent, Russia tolerated and taxed many of the new peoples.-The state’s approach ranged from outright repression (of Poles and Jews) to favoritism (toward Baltic Germans and Finns), although the beneficiaries of favoritism often later lost favor if they became too strong.

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture