The rate of the reaction can also be acquired using graphsThe concentration

# The rate of the reaction can also be acquired using

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The rate of the reaction can also be acquired using graphs.The concentration would have to be plotted as a

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function of time, thus allowing the initial rate to be determined by taking the slope of the first few points of the graph. This method is better known as the method of initial rates. Order: In the previous equation, the exponents n and m represent the order of the reaction relative to the reactants [A] and [B]. The sum of the two exponents n and m equals the total order of the reaction. The order of a reaction must be determined experimentally. It cannot be determined from the stoichiometric equation of the reaction. In simple reactions the order is generally one or two but, many reaction that look simple are complex whose order may be fractional or an inverse. The Arrhenius Equation: Generally, as the temperature increases the rate of a simple chemical reaction will increase as well. This is a result of the fact that an increase in temperature increases the fraction of molecules that have high kinetic energies resulting in more molecules with a chance to react upon collision. The expression that relates these two factors was first introduced by a Swedish chemist named Arrhenius. Arrhenius’ Equation can be expressed as: k = Ae -Ea / RT Where E a is the activation energy expressed in the units kJ/mol, R is the gas constant (8.314 J/ K mol, T is the temperature expressed in Kelvin, e is the natural base of logarithms, and A is the pre-exponential factor. If the natural logarithm of both sides of the equation is taken Arrhenius’ equation can be expressed in a more convenient form: ln k = ln A - E A RT The equation of k can also be combined with the rate equation using the method of initial rate where it is assumed that the initial concentrations are constant, thus expressing the activation energy in terms of initial rates. Activation Energy: Activation energy (E a ) is the smallest amount of energy required in order for the desired reaction to occur. Therefore, if a molecule does not meet the activation energy a reaction will not occur. The activation energy represents the energy barrier molecules must pass in order for products to form which is shown through the potential energy profile. The activation energy for a reaction is determined experimentally through multiple experiments being carried out at different temperatures while measuring the different rate constants at each temperature. The graph ln k vs 1/T has a slope of -E a /R thus allowing E a to be calculated. References: - Chemical Kinetics. (n.d.). Retrieved from - Rashmi Venkateswaran, “Experiment 5 Theory and Instructions”, 2019
Procedure : 1. Extract catalase from the lettuce (NO organic solvents) . a. We will begin by crushing the lettuce using the blender and straining the liquid, containing the catalase using a cheesecloth. This catalase will then be used to carry out a series of further experiments.

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• Fall '14
• Pell, Wendy

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