The Champaran Satyagraha of 1917was Mahatma Gandhi's first Satyagraha. Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha were the events which later put Gandhi on the front seat of Indian National Revolution and made Satyagraha a powerful tool. Kheda Satyagraha 1918 In 1918, Gujarat as a whole suffered a severe epidemic of Plague and in Kheda alone around 17000 people lost their lives. Further, cholera also broke out locally. This was the immediate reason of the revolt. The revolt was against the taxes. The government said that if the taxes are not paid, the property would be seized. This revolt gave India a robust leader in Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and his colleagues organized this major tax revolt, which was able to mobilize all the castes and creeds of the region. Rowlatt Act (March 18, 1919) This gave unbridled powers to the govt. to arrest and imprison suspects without trial for two years maximum. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919): People were agitated over the arrest of Dr. Kitchlu and Dr. Satyapal on April 9, 1919. General O‘ Dyer fires at people who assembled in the Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar on 13thApril 1919. As a result hundreds of men, women and children were killed and thousands injured. Rabindranath Tagore returned his Knighthood (title) in protest. Sir Shankaran Nair resigned from Viceroy‘s Executive Council after this. Hunter Commission was appointed to enquire into it. On March 13, 1940, Sardar Udham Singh killed O‘Dyer when the later was addressing a meeting in Caxton Hall, London. Hunter Committee Report The Jallianwala Bagh massacre was followed by establishment of a non-official enquiry committee the Government established a committee headed by Lord Hunter a Senator of the "College of justice of Scotland". Khilafat Movement (1919-20): Muslims were agitated by the treatment done with Turkey by the British in the treaty that followed the First World War. Two brothers, Mohd.Ali and Shaukat Ali started this movement. Non cooperation movement (1920-22) The Non cooperation was the first mass movement launched under the leadership of Gandhi. The program of non-cooperation included: 1. Surrender of titles 2. Boycott of government affiliated educational institutions 3. Boycott of courts of law 4. Boycott of foreign cloth 5. Nonpayment of taxes
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| | Page 2 Chaura Chouri incidence (1922) On 5th February 1922, the Non Cooperation Movement was called off by Gandhi because of an unfortunate incidence at Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh. In this incidence the crowd participating in the Non Cooperation and Khilafat procession indulged into the violence with the police. As a result the crowd burnt a Police station and in the incidence 22 policemen were killed.
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British Raj, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Maratha Empire