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Aligned with goals of evidence based treatment

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Aligned with goals of evidence-based treatmentPhysical Treatments: Shock Therapies and PsychosurgeryAlthough talking therapies were prominent, in the 1930s-1950s there was a concurrentmovement towards discovering physical cures for mental illness and physical (biological)interventionsClinicians thought it might be possible to cure mental illness with direct physicalinterventions acting on the biology of the brainElectroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been (highly) controversial but also has continuedto be used for some forms of mental illnessOther shock therapies included insulin shock and medically induced convulsions orcomasAs scientists began to understand the functions of different areas of the brain, prefrontallobotomies were used for some mental and behavioural disorders- but these often resultedin lost capacity and harmsSocial Movements and the Patient VoiceRights and perspectives of patientsAttitudes about rights of patients have changed dramatically over the decades, in partbecause of recognition of the errors of the past
The voices of patients have been largely absent from accounts of treatment of mentalillnessPatients’ rights movements have been prominent in advocating for patient rights, workingto destigmatise mental illness, and improving access to treatment- can be seen as part ofthe larger rights movements (civil rights, human rights)DeinstitutionalizationAs consumer groups advocated for greater patient autonomy and self-determination, theydrew attention to the very poor conditions of asylumsMany physicians also saw forced hospitalisation as being harmfulThe introduction of psychopharmaceuticals led many to be optimistic that many patientscould be treated successfully in the community, opening up new avenues for outpatientinterventionsFrom the 1960s-1990s the size and number of psychiatric institutions greatly declinedOften, there were not sufficient community-based services developed to meet the needsof patients leaving institutionsThis will be examined and discussed further through a local example in Tutorial next week:the closure of Riverview HospitalCommunities, service users, and clinicians continue to grapple with what role, if any, in-patient facilities should play in the spectrum of treatments for mental illnessShift from “Madness” to Mental IllnessDiscussion Question: How did the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment challenge andchange the religious view of mental illness?Week 3The History of Mental IllnessChapter 2: The Long (or Short) History of Mental Health(continued from Friday)Madness Before the 18thCenturyThe transformation into Mental Illness and Rise of the Asylum
The development of asylumsBy the 19th century, large institutions devoted to the care of people with mental illnessappeared and proliferatedIt became a business and an industryThese were overseen by physicians who specialized in mental illness

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Term
Summer
Professor
KateTairyan

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