nguphap_ta_0353

Sai the directors secretary sent to them the

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Sai : The director's secretary sent to them the menuscript last night. N ế u c tân ng tr c ti ế p và gián ti ế p ñề u là ñạ i t thì ch ñượ c dùng công th c th nh t, không dùng công th c 2: ð úng : They gave it to us. Sai : They gave us it . Chú ý : Hai ñộ ng t introduce (gi i thi u ai v i ai) và mention ( ñề c p ñế n cái gì tr ướ c m t ai) luôn dùng cùng v i gi i t to nên chúng không cho phép chuy n ñổ i v trí hai tân ng tr c ti ế p và gián ti ế p. I introduce John to Dr. Tim. I introduce Dr. Tim to John. He mentions the party to me . 45. Câu tr c ti ế p và câu gián ti ế p Trong câu tr c ti ế p thông tin ñ i t ng ườ i th nh t ñế n th ng ng ườ i th hai (ng ườ i th nh t nói tr c ti ế p v i ng ườ i th hai). He said "I bought a new motorbike for myself yesterday". Trong câu gián ti ế p thông tin ñ i t ng ườ i th nh t qua ng ườ i th hai ñế n v i ng ườ i th ba. Khi ñ ó câu có bi ế n ñổ i v m t ng pháp. He said he had bought a new motorbike for himself the day before. ðể bi ế n ñổ i m t câu tr c ti ế p sang câu gián ti ế p c n: 1. ðổ i ch ng và các ñạ i t nhân x ư ng khác trong câu tr c ti ế p theo ch ng c a thành ph n th nh t. 2. Lùi ñộ ng t v ế th 2 xu ng m t c p so v i lúc ban ñầ u. 3. Bi ế n ñổ i các ñạ i t ch th , phó t ch th i gian và ñị a ñ i m theo b ng qui ñị nh. B ng ñổ i ñộ ng t Direct speech Indirect speech Simple present Present progressive Present perfect (Progressive) Simple past Simple past Past progressive Past perfect (Progressive) Past perfect
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S ư u t m và thi ế t k ế b i Ph m Vi t V ũ - 114 – Tr ườ ng ðạ i H c Kinh T ế ð à N ng Will/Shall Can/May Would/ Should Could/ Might B ng ñổ i các ñạ i t ch th , phó t ch ñị a ñ i m và th i gian Today Yesterday The day before yesterday Tomorrow The day after tomorrow Next + Time Last + Time Time + ago This, these Here, Overhere That day The day before Two days before The next/ the following day In two days' time The following + Time The previous + Time Time + before That, those There, Overthere N ế u l i nói và hành ñộ ng x y ra cùng ngày thì không c n ph i ñổ i th i gian. At breakfast this morning he said "I will be busy today ". At breakfast this morning he said he would be busy today . Các suy lu n logic v m t th i gian t t nhiên là c n thi ế t khi l i nói ñượ c thu t l i sau ñ ó m t ho c hai ngày.
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