The need for humanitarian aid will increase as well In Africa and in some parts

The need for humanitarian aid will increase as well

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and the destruction of grazing land and cultivation areas. The need for humanitarian aid will increase as well. In Africa and in some parts of Asia wood is an article in short supply and great natural values are spoilt every year because of the growing devastation of trees. This also means that biological diversity is seriously threatened. Today 2.5 billion people, over one third of humanity, depend upon traditional fuels for an essential life function: cooking. For those who depend upon fuel wood, it takes about two pounds of wood per person each day to cook their food. For a family of five, that’s 3 650 pounds of wood a year. Poor people now scramble for wood seriously damaging their environment and causing local deforestation. In 40 of the world’s poorest countries over 70% of the country’s fuel comes from dwindling supplies of fuel wood or, in towns and cities, from charcoal inefficiently made from wood 87 . 87 Solar Cookers International SCI: , 2004 -12 -04
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69 The need for sustainable energy use in the developing countries has been discussed in many of UN:s General Assemblies. The real focus of international concern came with Agenda 21, 1/ adopted at Rio de Janeiro 1992. Agenda 21 addresses the pressing environmental and developmental problems of today and also aims at preparing the world for the challenges of the next century in order to attain the long-term goals of sustainable development 88 . UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) (1996 ) is a policy framework for UNDP’s energy activities. It states that UNDP should focus on four priority areas concerning energy. Energy Priority 2 concerns promoting rural energy services. This includes support to sustainable methods of heating and cooking food, witch is one the main areas that this project focus on. The UNDEP Energy Priority 3 is promoting clean energy technology. Today modern energy technologies are available that can support win-win development options, addressing both global environmental protection and local development needs 89 . These include solar energy. This project is a good example of a modern but simple technology that can provide both environmental and local development benefits. The change from wood cooking to solar oven cooking means a lot less green house gases are released into the atmosphere and less risk for a climate change. Of course the production and transportation of solar ovens means some emissions of green house gases but this is nothing in comparison to wood burning. A study was made which calculated the potential avoidance of greenhouse gases emissions when wood cooking was replaced with solar ovens (Sun Co, 2005). The conclusion was that with dry wood with a energy content of 18.41 MJ/kg and a 3- stone fire with an efficiency of 5 % a household of five people avoided 3290 kg CO2 emissions every year by using a solar oven instead. This is calculated on 280 meals per year and a solar availability of 77 %. 2.5 billion people gives 0.5 billion families and a yearly emission reduction of 1.65 billion tons(!) if they use solar ovens instead. These results assume that the wood is dry. If the wood is wet the emissions will be 22 % more
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