understanding of what is sacred on others. Additional territory charted above yielded the conclusions that consent forms, and laws governing the body as property require further review. Lastly, there is a pressing need
208 J. Burley for careful evaluation of recent reports of plasticity of adult stem cells in the clinical context. Government, especially those which restrict ES cell research, should be prepared to fund generously clarificatory randomized controlled trials of apparently promising ongoing clinical studies involving adult stem cells. I wish to acknowledge very helpful comments made by Alan Colman, Jeremy Buzzard, and Ray Dunn on earlier drafts of this chapter. I wish also to thank Arif Bongso and Eng Hin Lee for their editorial comments/ suggestions. NOTES 1. One glaring example can be found in the Republic of South Africa’s, National Health Bill, 2004. 2. For example, are cells which are self-renewing and unipotent, adult stem cells or precursor cells? Slack JM. (2000) Stem cells in epithelial tissues. Science 287 : 1431–1433. Cf. Melton D. (2004) Stemness: definitions and criteria, and standards. Handbook of Stem Cells , Vol. 2, Adult and Fetal Stem Cells, ed. R. Lanza, p. xxiii, Elsevier. 3. Penvy L, Rao S. (2003) The stem cell menagerie. Trends Neurosci 26 : 351–359. 4. SmithAG. (2001) Embryo-derived stem cells: Of mice and men. Annu Rev Cell Devel Biol 17 : 387–403; Morrison SJ, Sha NM,Anderson DJ (1997) Regulatory mechanisms in stem cell biology. Cell 88 : 287–298. 5. Anderson DJ, Gage FH, Weissman IL. (2001) Can stem cells cross lineage boundaries. Nature Med 7 : 393–395. 6. Verfaillie CM. (2004) Adult stem cells: Tissue specific or not. Handbook of Stem Cells , Vol. 2, ed. R. Lanza, pp. 13–20, Elsevier. 7. Dor Y, Melton D. (2004) Pancreatic stem cells. In Handbook of Stem Cells , Vol. 2, ed. R. Lanza, pp. 513–520, Elsevier. 8. Shamblott MJ,Axelman J,Wang S, et al. (1998) Derivation of pluripotent stem cells from cultured human primordial germ cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95 : 13726–13731. 9. Shamblott MJ,Axelman J, Littlefield JW, et al. (2001) Human embryonic germ cell derivatives express a broad range of developmentally distinct markers and proliferate extensively in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98 : 113–118. 10. Onyango P,Jiang S,Uejima H, et al . (2002) Monoallelic expression and methy- lation of imprinted genes in human and mouse embryonic germ cell lineages. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99 : 10599–10604. 11. Gearhart J,Armstrong CM, Prepared for the President’s Council on Bioethics. Human Embryonic Germ Cells, June 2001–July 2003.
209 Stem Cells and Translational Medicine Ethics, Law, and Policy 12. Samblott MJ, Axelman J, Wang S, et al. (1998) Derivation of pluripotent stem cells from cultured human primordial germ cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95 : 13726–13731. 13. For example, in the UK if you own a Grade II listed heritage property, make alterations to it without Council approval. 14. Bayne T. (2003) Gamete donation and parental responsibility. J Appl Phil 20 (1): 77–87. Bayne’s reply is mirrored in this paragraph.
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