What are some similarities of the development of agriculture in the New World (Western Hemisphere) compared to the Old World (Fertile Crescent, Europe)? Differences? In what ways did agriculture contribute to the development of civilization? The Americas Early Industrial Europe Farmers discovered the longer the land is under continuous cultivation, the land yielded less crops with poorer nutritional value Progress focused on keeping soil fertile Introduction of clover to restore soil nutrients (N fixing via bacteria that create N compounds in root nodules) Crop rotation Fallow periods Heavy use of manure as fertilizer Impact of Agricultural Mechanism Increased food production with fewer laborers Freed up labor from the land to work in industrial mills in 18th to early 20th centuries Improvements in transportation Rapid expansion of market & trade Discovery of Americas Fast sea transportation & exploration allowed European agriculture to expand globally Colonies formed in foreign land to feed growing European population 1492-1500+ Christopher Columbus sailed across Atlantic Ocean in search of India/Asia Landed in Caribbean Islands/Bahamas Called natives “Indians” Didn’t find spices or anything worthy of trading Spanish Colonialism - 1500s Spain became concerned with Christian missions Subjugated Native Americans Colonies of Cuba & Hispaniola Created feudal plantations & used Indians for labor Primary crop: sugar cane Within 1 generation the native population was wiped out by small pox Began importing African slaves to work plantations
4 Spanish Exploration of the “New World” 1513: Florida, Cuba 1517: Golf of Mexico, Mayan society 1519: Aztec society 1539-1542: Florida, Georgia, S. Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas 1540-1542: California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas Trade Between Europe & New World Spanish to America: Horses Pigs, cattle Sheep, goats Poultry Wheat, barley Alfalfa Sugar cane Grapes Citrus Garlic America to Spain: Maize/Corn Tomatoes Potatoes Beans Cacao (cocoa) Tobacco Cotton Pineapple Peppers Squash Other Europeans In America France 1608: “discovery” of Canada 1612: Exploration of the Great Lakes region in North America 1682: La Salle sailed down Mississippi River to Golf of Mexico Claimed Mississippi Valley for France French had no interest in farming or gold Bonded with Native Americans to create the Fur trade Other Europeans: Dutch 1609: Discovery of the Hudson River and Albany, NY by Sir Henry Hudson Dutch farmers were willing to go to America to farm with other European nationals English in America
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- Spring '08
- The American, Native Americans in the United States, mesoamerican farmers, Early American Farm