expression because the infant would have a basis for comparison that thenaive coders lacked.Figure 2.Infant behavioral responding in Study 2: mean infant positive affect (a), mean infant negative affect(b), and mean number of infant reaches for the stimulus (c). Error bars represent1SEM.This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.495INFANT DETECTION OF INAUTHENTIC EMOTION
ResultsIt is important to reemphasize that this investigation was de-signed to examine whether infants within each age group differ-entially responded between conditions, not whether differenceswere present between ages within conditions. Thus, the analysesfor Study 2 included planned comparisons to test our a priorihypotheses for each variable.Infant reaches to the toy.Planned comparisons tested forpredicted differences in infant reaching between conditions withineach infant age group (seeFigure 2a). Contrary to our expecta-tions, 16-month-old infants reached significantly more often in thenormative condition (M1.44,SD1.31) than in the exagger-ated condition (M0.73,SD0.88),t(38)1.99,p.05,d0.63. Nineteen-month-old infants also demonstrated differentialreaching by condition, but showed the opposite effect, reachingsignificantly more in the exaggerated condition (M1.32,SD1.17) than in the normative condition (M0.42,SD0.84),t(41)2.85,p.007,d0.88.Infant positive affect.Our a priori hypothesis that 19-month-old infants, but not 16-month-old infants, would demonstrate in-creased positive affect to exaggerated fearful displays was testedusing planned comparisons (seeFigure 2b). Sixteen-month-oldinfants did not differ in their display of positive affect in theexaggerated (M0.74,SD0.88) and normative (M0.48,SD0.66) conditions,t(36)1.01,p.32,d0.33. A trendwas found indicating that 19-month-old infants demonstratedgreater positive affect in the exaggerated condition (M1.06,SD1.01) than in the normative condition (M0.56,SD0.91),t(39)1.66,p.11,d.50, but this effect was notsignificant.Infant negative affect.Again, planned comparisons testedour a priori hypothesis that 19-month-old infants, but not 16-month-old infants, would display increased negative affect in thenormative condition (seeFigure 2c). Sixteen-month-old infants didnot differ significantly in their display of negative affect in thenormative (M0.25,SD0.46) and exaggerated (M0.59,SD0.90),t(36)1.53,p.14,d0.48, conditions. However,19-month-old infants displayed significantly greater negative af-fect in the normative condition (M0.84,SD1.16) than in theexaggerated condition (M0.09,SD0.26),t(39)2.76,p.01,d0.99.DiscussionThe present study found that both 19-month-old and 16-month-old infants differentially responded to the degree of exaggerationof emotional communication. However, we believe that only the19-month-old infants detected inauthenticity in the exaggeratedemotional display.
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Psychology, American Psychological Association, Joseph J. Campos, Exaggerated Emotion