rise of black nationalism and militancy. Accused of kidnapping a white couple that he said he was protecting from a mob, he fled to Cuba. He continued to write and speak on his views from there, and later from China. His book Negroes With Guns advocated learning to use weapons to protect home and family from terror tactics used by the Ku Klux Klan and other groups who were trying to discourage African Americans from demanding and using civil rights. Eventually, he returned to the United States, and the kidnapping charges were dropped.Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)CORE also gave up on nonviolence and embraced "Black Power."A. Philip Randolphcommitted his whole life to equal rights. He organized the Pullman porters, attendants on trains, into a labor union to demand better treatment. Randolph tried to organize a march in the nation's capital in 1941 to protest discrimination in war-related industries and segregation of the armed forces. PresidentRoosevelt cancelled the plans, but Randolph finally got his March on Washington in 1963, working alongside other prominent civil rights leaders
National Urban League (NUL)The NUL formed to assist African Americans who moved to northern cities in finding employment and other needsMalcolm XMalcolm X is probably the most famous figure of the Black Nationalist movement. While in prison, he learned about the Nation of Islam, also known as Black Muslims, a religious group calling for a separate nation for African Americans. Their message of self-help and clean living inspired Malcolm X to change his views on life, and he did not return to drugs or crime when he left prison. Instead, he joined the organization, quickly rising into the roles of Muslim minister and spokesperson in the late 1950s. He had changed his surname to "X" from his birth name "Little," to show his rejection of white culture and the history of slavery from where his birth name came. He also took the Muslim name El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz.Black Panther PartyThe image is a Black Panther Party poster from 1970 showing founders Huey Newton, Bobby Seale, Eldridge Cleaver, and the words of Malcolm X. The group began in Oakland, California, calling for "revolutionary war" and equal rights at all costs. It was in part a reaction to the assassination of Malcolm X and violent riots in inner cities around the country, including the Watts Riots of Los Angeles where 34 people died in a predominantly African American area.Vocabulary●Boycott – refusal to deal with something, such as a business, as a protest to force some kind of change●Civil disobedience – intentional breaking of a law in a nonviolent or passive manner●Civil Rights Movement – social movement of the 1950s and 1960s to establish equality and civil rights for African Americans●Integration – acceptance and equal access for all people into a group or place●Segregation – enforced separation of groups●Social activism – use of direct action to bring about social changeEvent or ActionOrganization/Key PeopleStrategyBrown v. Board of Education: The U.S.