4. Once the vibrations cause the fluid inside the cochlea to ripple, a traveling wave forms along the basilar membrane. Hair cells-sensory cells sitting on top of the basilar membrane-ride the wave. 5. As the hair cells move up and down, microscopic hair-like projections (known as stereocilia) that perch on top of the hair cells bump against an overlying structure and bend. Bending causes pore-like channels, which are at the tips of the stereocilia, to open up. When that happens, chemicals rush into the cells, creating an electrical signal. 6. The auditory nerve carries this electrical signal to the brain, which turns it into a sound that we recognize and understand. • Men usually experience greater hearing loss and have earlier onset compared with women. • The most common type is age-related hearing loss; however, many conditions can interfere with the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear and their conversion to electrical impulses for conduction to the brain. • Examination of the auditory canal and tympanic membrane can identify causes of conductive hearing loss. • Audiometric testing is required to confirm hearing loss. • Major barriers to improved hearing in older adults include lack of recognition of hearing loss; perception that hearing loss is a normal part of aging or is not amenable to treatment; and patient nonadherence with hearing aids because of stigma, cost, inconvenience, disappointing initial results, or other factors. 34.Examination techniques used to examine the trachea and thyroid Please refer to pages in Siedel pp. 185-188, pp. 194-195, Hyper and Hypothyroidism (pp 200-201) and pg. 273 View video on YouTube demo: The Thyroid Exam (Stanford Medicine 25) on YouTube: View Video: Thyroid Status Examination - OSCE Guide: ? v=ziaYBkgEZNU View Video: Examination of the Trachea Thyroid Anatomy: One gland two lobes, butterfly-shaped and joined by an isthmus at their lowest aspect (Seidel, p.185). Thyroid Gland that straddles the trachea in the middle of the neck . Secretes T4 and T3. Has two lobes. Thyroid is the largest endocrine gland in the body producing two hormones Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroid feels : Rubbery and easier to feel on a long slender neck What do you do if the thyroid is enlarged?: Listen over lateral lobes w/ bell and listen for thyroid bruit Inspect Neck for range of motion, strength, trachea, thyroid, and lymph nodes.
Trachea : The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs What techniques do you use to examine the neck? 1. inspection : inspect the neck in the usual anatomic position, in slight hyperextension as the patient swallows ( Seidel p. 193 see pictures).
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 30 pages?
- Summer '15
- Pubic hair