1853 an agreement between Philip II and Gregory XIII where it was stated that

1853 an agreement between philip ii and gregory xiii

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1853: an agreement between Philip II and Gregory XIII where it was stated that regulars should hand over the churches they hold once there are enough secular priests in the country v 1870: 611 churches - held by regulars 181 churches - held by seculars v Father PEDRO PELAEZ (died 1863): one of the first proponents LA ALGARADA CAVITENA (1872) v Led by soldiers
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v Reason: Soldiers were now required to pay taxes and participate in polo which they were initially exempted from v Opponent: Governor General Rafael IZQUIERDO v Two forts/bases: San Felipe and Santiago v Signal for starting the uprising would be fireworks v January 20, 1872: uprising due to miscommunication; fireworks that were seen at this time was due to the celebration of the feast of San Sebastian v Blame for event was placed on GOMBURZA v Francisco ZALDUA - a soldier, gave a testimony against GOMBURZA v GOMBURZA Mariano Gomez (was in Manila) Jose Burgos (was in Bacoor) Jacinto Zamora (was in Manila) Proof for blame: a letter received by Fr. Zamora which included the words “balas” and “polvora”; real reason: they were secular priests v February 17, 1872 - the execution of GOMBURZA at Luneta with 30, 000 spectators PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT v Ilustrados begin to call for reforms straight from Madrid v Via writings and political lobbying v Not anti-Spanish, but anti-friars v GOALS: 1. For the Philippines to become a Spanish province Filipinos will be treated as Spanish citizens by law Send a representative to the Spanish Cortes ( political lobbying) 2. Secularization 3. More educational reforms Education to be accessible to all Secularization of the school system 4. Development of the Philippine economy through free trade A. Asosacion Hispano-Filipino v June 12, 1889; members both Spanish and Filipino (Clase media) v Goal is to approach Spanish political figures for political lobbying v E.g. Miguel Morayta - historian, professor from Madrid v 1893 - Maura Law successfully passed through the Spanish Cortes through congressman Don Antonio Maura v Maura Law: Colonial Government should give more duties to municipal governments Filipinos should be taught Spanish: was vetoed by friars who believed it was dangerous to do so, because they would then not be able to capitalize in Filipinos’ regionalism v Writing B. La Solidaridad (a.k.a. Sol) v Ilustrados v Newspaper that highlighted Filipino achievements, news, posted nationalistic articles etc. v Wrote place of publication as Yokohama (actual place of publication in Madrid and Barcelona) v Used pen names Jose RIZAL - Laong Laan, Dimasilang Mariano PONCE - Kalipulako (Lapu- lapu) Marcelo DEL PILAR - Plaridel Jose Mari PANGANIBAN – JOMAPA v Spaniard’s retaliated against them in part, for example, when they targeted Rizal’s mother v January 1, 1889
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v First Editor in Chief - Graciano Lopez Jaena People voted for Rizal, but he was in London at the time studying a book that presents the Philippines objectively ( Events in the Philippine Islands , Antonio de Morga ) v 2nd Editor in Chief - Marcelo del Pilar
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