ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

For example the role of a us senator is viewed as

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determined to a large extent by the role defined in the context in which they are acting. For example, the role of a U.S. senator is viewed as having propriety and dignity, whereas a football coach is seen as aggressive, dynamic, and inspiring to his players. In the same context, one might be surprised to learn the neighborhood priest moonlights during the week as a bartender because our role expectations of priests and bartenders tend to be considerably different. When role expectations are concentrated into generalized categories, we have role stereotypes. When an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations , the result is role conflict. This condition exists when an individual finds that compliance with one role requirement may make more difficult the compliance with another. At the extreme, it would include situations in which two or more role expectations are mutually contradictory. Behavioral responses may include withdrawal, stalling, negotiation, or redefining the facts or situation to make them appear congruent. All groups have established norms, that is, acceptable standards of behavior shared by the group’s members. Norms tell members what they ought and not ought to do under certain circumstances. From an individual’s standpoint, they tell what is expected of them in certain situations. When agreed to and accepted by the group, norms act as a means of influencing the behavior of group members with a minimum of external controls. Norms differ among groups, communities and societies, but they all have them. Formalized norms are written up in organizational manuals setting out rules and procedures for employees to follow. The most common and widespread norms deal with performance-related processes. Work groups typically provide their members with explicit cues on how hard they should work, how to get the job done, their level of output, appropriate communication channels, and so on. These norms are extremely powerful in affecting an individual employee’s performance. As a member of a group, people desire acceptance by the group. Because of this desire for acceptance, individuals are susceptible to conforming to the group’s norms. Considerable evidence shows that groups can place strong pressures on individual members to change their attitudes and behaviors to conform to the group’s standard. Studies suggest the group norms press us toward conformity. We desire to be one of the group and avoid being visibly different. It can further be generalized to say that when an individual’s opinion of objective data differs significantly from that of others in the group, he or she is likely to feel extensive pressure to align his or her opinion to conform with that of the others.
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Status is a socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. Despite attempts to make it more egalitarian, we do not live in a classless society. Even the smallest group develops rights, roles, and rituals to differentiate its members. Status is an important factor in understanding human behavior because it is a significant
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