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12 Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2=14.3032, sig=0.0000). 13 n=8508. Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2=6.0671, sig=0.0000). 14 n=8554. Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2=7.6533, sig=0.0063). 15 Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2=4.4199, sig=0.0130). n=8578. 16 Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2=5.8103, sig=0.0001). 17 n=8482. Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2=13.5282, sig=0.0000). 18 Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2=3.0802, sig=0.0145). 19 For every one unit decrease in the SES index, the odds of missing a year or more of school increased by 1.6%. 20 Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2=2.4637, sig=0.0204). 21 Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2=5.2542, sig=0.0019). 22 Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2=45.0545, sig=0.0000). 23 Note that the data on repetition presented in this chapter is based on all those in school in 2007. Data on out of school youth was only captured for those 7 to 18, whereas data on those in school was captured for all ages. 24 Foundation Phase (Grades R to 3), Intermediate Phase (Grades 4 to 6), Secondary Phase (7 to 9) and Further Education and Training Phase (Grades 10 to 12). 25 There is evidence to suggest that repetition seldom leads to better learning outcomes, though the effect of repetition will be partly dependant on the reasons that a child has not achieved the required grade or learning outcomes. See the Learner Retention Report for a brief overview of this debate. Department of Education, L earner Retention in the South African Schooling System: Report to the Minister of Education G.N.M Pan- dor , M.P, May 2008. 26 Department of Education, Learner Retention in the South African Schooling System: Report to the Minister of Education G.N.M Pandor, M.P, May 2008, 19. 27 n=9097 28 Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2= 200.24, sig=0.0001) 29 Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2=95.33, sig=0.000). 30 For males: Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2=89.83, sig=0.000) when running test by repeated / not repeated (too many cells with expected values of 1 and less when running test using more refined categories).Females: Statistically significant associa- tion: ( Ȥ 2=72.81, sig=0.000) when running test by repeated / not repeated. 31 Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2=210.82, sig=0.013). 32 Shona, Ovambo, German, and Portuguese were left out because they represented less than 4 counts each. 33 Acknowledging that schools that are under resourced and where education quality may not be high may well push learners through even if the curriculum has not been mas- tered. Lower rates of repetition may therefore not be an indicator of better schooling.
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  C h a p t e r F o u r 34 See chapter 6 for an explanation of school quintiles. 35 Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2=186.11, sig=0.000). 36 Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2=32.66, sig=0.000). 37 Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2=181.09, sig=0.000). 38 Statistically significant association: ( Ȥ 2=274.44, sig=0.000).
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