Fo ergy and resources t fx qspdfttft qspevdujpo

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FO-ergy and resources; t /FX QSPDFTTFT QSPEVDUJPO USBOTQPSU BOE MP-gistics) requiring less energy and resource input per unit of production; t /FX MPOHFS MBTUJOH BOE NPSF SFDZDMBCMF QSPE-ucts; t " NPWF UPXBSE MFTT FOFSHZ
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BOE SFTPVSDF JOUFO-sive production activities; t $IBOHF PG MPDBUJPO JO FDPOPNJD BDUJWJUJFT UP reduce resource use for transport; t /FX QSJODJQMFT GPS DPOTUSVDUJPO BOE IPVTJOH and new forms of agglomerations; and (i.e., city planning and development that reduce re-source transport and heating). Referring to these types of changes, we may think of ways in which innovation can contribute to low- carbon development. Innovation should, however, not be viewed as a panacea for any problem con- nected with climate change. Significant parts of current innovation efforts work to undermine sus- tainability; for example, some consumer product innovations are designed only to stimulate con- sumers’ appetite for a new product model. Another example is process innovations that increase the use of resources per unit of value produced. In a mar-ket economy, process innovations that reduce the price of resource-intensive products will move the production structure in the wrong direction. It is therefore necessary to redefine innovation policy from general innovation support toward directed innovation support, and this should also be reflect-
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ed in efforts to build or support LICS. Because of the aforementioned differences between LICS in the South and the North, this may also imply dif-ferent policies in each region. A detailed direction of learning and innovation processes is unfeasible. However, history gives many examples of how such processes can be guided by governments, in order to lead eventually to a new technological trajectory in the economy. Market forces are obviously incapable of solving the problem without guidance, nor can the state take on the role of entrepreneur. The so-called ef-fective demand of future generations is currently zero, which indicates a need for strong interven-tion by forces outside the marketplace. This does not exclude the use of market mechanisms; neither does it imply central planning and total loss of au-tonomy for agents in the private sector. Rather, it calls for intelligent management of the interaction between government interventions, market forces, and other actors. The need for creativity and entre- preneurship in individuals as well as in organisa- tions may actually be stronger than ever. The discussed guidance may take many forms: taxation, subsidies, public research, public pro- duction and procurement, standardisation, and regulation. Such policy tools can be selected and designed according to their effect on innovation and learning. Measures that make procedures inflexible should be avoided. They should give freedom in the choice of method as long as the desired outcome of specific low-carbon objectives is reached.
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