•Measurable in most countries and easily available •However, Not all entrepreneurs run small firms, and not every small firm is run by an entrepreneur (Holtz-Eakin,2000)•The total stock of SMEs also includes numerous part-time and ‘hobby’ businesses that are not truly entrepreneurial in the sense of being innovative, growth- or profit-driven.
Measurement- Self-employment•Reflects that entrepreneurship is a risk-taking activity.•Data on self-employment is reported in the (US)Current Population Survey - monthly survey by the Bureau of Labor Statistics;(Canada) Current Labour Survey- monthly survey by the Statistics Canada •Both unincorporated and incorporated business.•Reflects the widest range of entrepreneurs.
Measurement- Self-employment•Drawbacks:•1. Many professionals such as lawyer and doctors are self-employed;•2. Countries classify self-employment differently; •3. Does not count nascent entrepreneurs (in the stage of planning a business).
Measurement – Business Ownership •In both US and Canada, Annual data on •Non-employer businesses – has no other worker other than the owner(s)•and, Employer businesses – employ at least one paid worker other than the owner(s) •are reported, and entry and exit data of employer businesses were often reported too.
Measurement - others•Billionaires– high-impact entrepreneurs, only focuses on success •Habitual entrepreneurs– 1.Serial entrepreneurs, who runs several businesses in sequence.2. Portfolio entrepreneurs, operate several businesses in parallel,
Reference •SCHUMPETER, J.A. 1942. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, 3rd edition, London: George Allen and Unwin, 1976 •Knight, Frank H. 1921 Risk, Uncertainty, and Profit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin,•Kirzner, I. 1973. Competition and Entrepreneurship, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press•Parker, Simon C.. 2018 The Economics of Entrepreneurship, Cambridge University Press. Kindle Edition.