[Donald_Waters]_Global_Logistics_New_Directions_i(BookFi)

North american logistics 483 would benefit from

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North American logistics 483 would benefit from economies of scale in addition to the untapped port capacity. Inbound logistics An important characteristic of North American logistics is the imbalanced traffic, a reflection of the negative trade balance that has endured in the United States since the 1990s. For instance, of the total value of trade handled in 2007 by American maritime gateways, imports accounted for a staggering 73 per cent. The structure of global trade thus impacts heavily on the operations of North American gateways that are essentially a system dealing with the intricacies of inbound logistics. North American retailers account for a substantial share of containerized imports, mostly involving finished consumption goods bound to major inland freight distribution centres. The largest importers, such as Wal- Mart, Home Depot, Target, Sears, Costco, Ikea and Lowe’s, are all mass (Big Box) retailers relying on high-volume and low-margin goods, which are dominantly produced abroad. It is worth mentioning that about 60 per cent of all Chinese trade surplus with the United States is the outcome of American-owned firms operating in China and importing their output in the United States. Exporters show a completely different profile and thus completely different supply chains. A major category of containerized Whirlpool Wal-Mart 0 200,000 400,000 Importers 600,000 800,000 Target Home Depot Sears Holding Dole Food Costco Wholsale Lowe’s LG Group Philips Chiquita Heineken Ikea Ashley Furniture General Electric Jarden Samsung Red Bull Nike JC Penney Newport Chintemational America Chung Nam 0 200,000 400,000 Exporters 600,000 800,000 Weyerhaeuser Cargill Koch Industries International Paper Dow Chemical Dupont Potential Industries Procter & Gamble Meadwestvaco Cedarwood-Young Archer Daniels Midland BASF Delong ExxonMobil JC Horizon Denison CGB Enterprises Sims Metal Management Figure 28.2 American foreign trade by maritime containers, 2008 (in TEUs)
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484 Global logistics exports concerns recycled products with exporters such as America Chung Name, Potential Industries or Cedarwood-Young. Other major exporters include forest and paper products (eg Weyerhaeuser, Inter- national Paper), agribusiness (eg Cargill, Archer Daniels Midland) and chemicals (eg Dow, Dupont). Two important logistical functions are linked with inbound logistics: transloading and empty container repositioning. Transloading involves the transfer from one load unit to another, which can be a complex task if the load units are significantly different. Repositioning involves making a container available for export activities once its import function has been fulfilled. If export cargo is unavailable, for example due to trade imbalances, then the container needs to be repositioned globally, which comes at a cost. There are several causes that may favour container trans- loading, which tends to take place in the vicinity of port terminals or inland (satellite) terminals (see Table 28.1).
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