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While creating scenarios for clean coal technology, the objective was also to analyse Clean Coal Technology Share, Fund Requirement for Clean Coal Technology, Land Requirement, Coal Consumption and Import Dependence, Emission Reduction due to clean coal technology intervention in the medium term.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI would like to acknowledge NITI Aayog’s Knowledge Partner, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun for providing critical inputs to this report. I also acknowledge suggestions and critical inputs given by delegates during NITI - IEEJ conference of Joint Study Project. Further, I would like to thank our Energy team colleagues and Shri Surinder Singh Sur, Joint Adviser (Energy), NITI Aayog for constructive guidance and discussions. I convey my special thanks to Shri Anil Kumar Jain, IAS, Additional Secretary (Energy), NITI Aayog for providing valuable oppurtunity to participate and lead clean coal technology in India as a part of the joint study project with IEEJ. I would like to acknwoledge Shri Harendra Kumar, Joint Advisor, who has initiated this study & provided able leadership to this project.101
ABSTRACT Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) have been developed and deployed to reduce environmental impact of coal utilisation. Initially, the focus was on reducing emissions of particulates, SO2, NOX and mercury. The coal sector – producers, consumers and equipment suppliers for power plants - as well as governments and agencies in countries where coal is essential, have a long experience of clean coal technology deployment. Experience continues to grow as the technologies are introduced and spread in developing countries. The CCT focus in India has moved to the development and operation of low and near-zero GHG emission technologies like carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). IEA has identified four groups of CCTs (coal upgrading, efficiency improvements at existing power plants, advanced technologies and near-zero emission technologies) that can dramatically reduce GHG emissions. In the spirit of such an exercise, this report analyses what is possible share of CCT for India using India Energy Security Scenarios-2047 tool developed by the erstwhile Planning Commission and later refined by its successor NITI Aayog. The above Calculator allows us to adopt the more ambitious targets deemed feasible and consider the outcomes in terms of reduction in carbon emissions reduction, GHG Emission and Emission Intensity of GDP. This Report elaborates the multiple options of the share of Clean Coal Technology in power sector and policy interventions in this context. Interestingly, it is found that although most of the public attention is devoted to green sources of energy, about 86% of the mitigation potential in India comes from interventions focussing on energy efficiency measures, building better cities and encouraging behaviour changes among consumers.