The principle narrowed a little gives another form of oligarchy until at length

The principle narrowed a little gives another form of

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citizen should be always taken out of the better class of the people. The principle, narrowed a little, gives another form of oligarchy; until at length we reach the most cliquish and tyrannical of them all, answering to the extreme democracy, which, being the worst, requires vigilance in proportion to its badness. For as healthy bodies and ships well provided with sailors may undergo many mishaps and sur- vive them, whereas sickly constitutions and rotten ill-manned ships are ruined by the very least mistake, so do the worst forms of government require the greatest care. The populousness of democracies generally preserves them (for number is to democracy in the place of justice based on merit); whereas the preservation of an oligarchy clearly depends on an opposite principle, viz. good order. § 7 · As there are four chief divisions of the common people, farmers, artisans, 1321a5-1321b4 traders, labourers; so also there are four kinds of military forces—the cavalry, the heavy infantry, the light-armed troops, the navy. When the country is adapted for cavalry, then a strong oligarchy is likely to be established. For the security of the inhabitants depends upon a force of this sort, and only rich men can af- ford to keep horses. The second form of oligarchy prevails when the country is adapted to heavy infantry; for this service is better suited to the rich than to the poor. But the light-armed and the naval element are wholly democratic; and nowa- days, where they are numerous, if the two parties quarrel, the oligarchy are often worsted by them in the struggle. A remedy for this state of things may be found in the practice of generals who combine a proper contingent of light-armed troops thing a done deed and witchcraft real. People say of such a man, “Ali n’inumbula ja ‘gukanu, He has a wild beast’s heart.” But this refers to nothing secret, as the words only describe in metaphor human conduct everyone has seen. The technics of witchcraft are hardly more mysterious to Kinga than flight and pharmacology to most of us. The fascination is with the mind of the witch, its presocial ethic— its wildness. These are the mass murderers of common discourse in a technically simpler world. Witchcraft is not an aberrant epiphenomenon but a firm facet of Malatan belief. It parallels the ancestor cult and is at least as important in all three cultures. The cause of your illness may equally well have been the slighting of a friend or a god. Usually both the divination of an illness and the cure are accomplished by ‘objective’ means. For his coughing, the Nyakyusa priest Kasitile consulted in the order given: a diviner who struck a spear, one who used a stick in the ground (two visits), a diviner using a ball of stiff porridge, and finally one who used an axe, coppers, and a pot of ashes. The cures applied or prescribed were not confessional or other self-trans- forming ritual but objective—medicines or sacrificial offerings.
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