HIST 103—Islam

Mohammad and his followers decided to fight back city

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Mohammad and his followers decided to fight back City finally fell back to Mohammad Meanwhile: Muhammad's Death Succession Problem? Only Daughters Abu Bakr - first Caliph (head of the Islamic community, judge, religious leader, military  commander) Civil war—offensive against other towns and Bedouin clans that rejected Islam Muhammad's father-in-law Expansionist Jihad against neighboring people Aggression against each other now channeled outward 100 years Persians, Byzantines Yarmuk, 636, Syria 637, Persia 651 Northwestern India 711, on to Egypt, North Africa, 
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Cross Straight of Gibraltar into Spain to threaten Gaul (France) Aftermath of Conquest Ruthless conquest Ruled with light hand Tolerated “Peoples of the Book” (Christians and Jews) Voluntary conversion to Islam Taxes Problem with succession lingers Split: Abu Bakr (father-in-law) and Muhammad Ali (cousin & son-in-law) Muhammad Ali followers=Shia Succession passed to Umar- 2nd Caliph Uthman - 3rd Caliph 656 assassinated Ali comes to power but rivals convinced he was part of the plot Assassinated 661, many family members murdered Muhammad Ali—Muhammad’s son-in-law and cousin Wanted to be Caliph Party of Ali=Shi'ites Mu’awiya, governor of Syria and chief rival created a hereditary caliphate Umayyads Capital at Damascus
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Shia factions causes problems, claim the descendants of Ali are sinless
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