C The Dust Bowl 1 1935 1940 S Great Plains strip land of natural veg dry spell

C the dust bowl 1 1935 1940 s great plains strip land

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C. The Dust Bowl 1. (1935-1940) S. Great Plains – strip land of natural veg.  dry spell  dust storms 2. Wide flatlands  mechanized farming  increase prod. (wheat)  wheat price drop in ‘20s  broke more land for prod. increase  soil erosion 3.Dust storms a.Difficult humans/livestock breathingb.Wreck crops/treesc.Day  nightd.Dust pneumonia” (respiratory infections) 4. Direct fed aid – Resettlement Admin ; crop/seed loans; moratoriums on loan; temp. WPA jobs; AAA ($ not to grow what can’t sell; soil enriching crops) 5. Soil Conservation Service ( SCS ) – Dept. of Agri.; Henry Wallace a. Research controlling wind/water erosion; demon. proj.; tech. assistance; supplies, equip. b. Soil conservation district – admin. local conservation reg. 6. Okies – evicted tenant/sharecroppers (TX, OK, MO, AK)  CA (migrant laborers) a. Dust Bowl victims; small businessmen b. CA – Depression; increase in jobs, wages, relief $ vs. S. plains states c. Poorly paid agri. laborers  “poor white trash” 7. Mex. farm laborers vs. Dust bowl refugees  Mex. wages decrease 8. SW – unemp. whites – racial hostility & decrease in welfare  deport. Mex./Mex. Am. D. Water Policy 1. Water projects  irrigation, cheap pwr, prevent floods 2. Bureau of Reclamation – Dept. of Interior, Nat. Reclamation Act (1902) est. 9
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a. Original – dams/irrigation works  increase growth of small farms b. Boulder (Hoover) Dam (1935) harness CO River b.i. Flood prevention, CA’s Imperial Valley irrigation, dom. water for S. CA, cheap electricity for LA & S. AZ b.ii. Sale of hydroelectric power offset cost b.iii. Lake Mead – world’s largest artificial lake; created by dam construction b.iv. Success  Bureau = major fed. agency w/ huge resources c. All-American Canal (1938) – channel connecting CO River to Imperial Valley, w/ branch to Coachella Valley c.i. Open land to cultivation of citrus fruits, melons, veg, cotton c.ii. Irrigation districts repay canal cost w/o interest over 40yrs d. Central Valley Project (CVP) (1935 – 1947) d.i. Bring water from Sacramento River (N.)  arid lands San Joaquin Valley (S.); electricity; flood control; municipal water d.ii. Fed. gov, local municipalities, buyers of electric power paid most of cost d.iii. Help large-scale farmers e. Grand Coulee Dam – NW of Spokane, WA – (1941) jobs & $ into region e.i. Convert power of Columbia River  cheap electricity; irrigate previously uncultivated land  stimulate economic devel. of Pacific NW e.ii. Cheapest electricity in US; attract new manufacturing to region 3. Environ. & human cost a. Dams reduced Columbia River  lakes b. Fed. water  CA – few large farmers = rich; farm workers (Mex.) – low wages, pesticide contact  bad health c. CO River doesn’t empty into Pacific  build up salt deposits E. A New Deal for Indians 1. Reservations – worst poverty; infant mortality 2x white pop.; alcoholism, diseases increase; ½ landless; Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) = corruption & mismanagement 2. Merriam Report – (1928) Institute for Government Research – BIA mismanagement  Hoover admin. doesn’t reform 3. John Collier – (1933) head of BIA – FDR tried to reform 4. Indian Reorganization Act ( IRA ) (1934) – 181 tribes in; 77 tribes not 4.a.a. Reverse allotment provisions of Dawes Severalty Act (1887) 10
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4.a.b.
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