C. The Dust Bowl 1. (1935-1940) S. Great Plains – strip land of natural veg. dry spell dust storms 2. Wide flatlands mechanized farming increase prod. (wheat) wheat price drop in ‘20s broke more land for prod. increase soil erosion 3.Dust storms a.Difficult humans/livestock breathingb.Wreck crops/treesc.Day nightd.“Dust pneumonia” (respiratory infections) 4. Direct fed aid – Resettlement Admin ; crop/seed loans; moratoriums on loan; temp. WPA jobs; AAA ($ not to grow what can’t sell; soil enriching crops) 5. Soil Conservation Service ( SCS ) – Dept. of Agri.; Henry Wallace a. Research controlling wind/water erosion; demon. proj.; tech. assistance; supplies, equip. b. Soil conservation district – admin. local conservation reg. 6. Okies – evicted tenant/sharecroppers (TX, OK, MO, AK) CA (migrant laborers) a. Dust Bowl victims; small businessmen b. CA – Depression; increase in jobs, wages, relief $ vs. S. plains states c. Poorly paid agri. laborers “poor white trash” 7. Mex. farm laborers vs. Dust bowl refugees Mex. wages decrease 8. SW – unemp. whites – racial hostility & decrease in welfare deport. Mex./Mex. Am. D. Water Policy 1. Water projects irrigation, cheap pwr, prevent floods 2. Bureau of Reclamation – Dept. of Interior, Nat. Reclamation Act (1902) est. 9
a. Original – dams/irrigation works increase growth of small farms b. Boulder (Hoover) Dam (1935) harness CO River b.i. Flood prevention, CA’s Imperial Valley irrigation, dom. water for S. CA, cheap electricity for LA & S. AZ b.ii. Sale of hydroelectric power offset cost b.iii. Lake Mead – world’s largest artificial lake; created by dam construction b.iv. Success Bureau = major fed. agency w/ huge resources c. All-American Canal (1938) – channel connecting CO River to Imperial Valley, w/ branch to Coachella Valley c.i. Open land to cultivation of citrus fruits, melons, veg, cotton c.ii. Irrigation districts repay canal cost w/o interest over 40yrs d. Central Valley Project (CVP) (1935 – 1947) d.i. Bring water from Sacramento River (N.) arid lands San Joaquin Valley (S.); electricity; flood control; municipal water d.ii. Fed. gov, local municipalities, buyers of electric power paid most of cost d.iii. Help large-scale farmers e. Grand Coulee Dam – NW of Spokane, WA – (1941) jobs & $ into region e.i. Convert power of Columbia River cheap electricity; irrigate previously uncultivated land stimulate economic devel. of Pacific NW e.ii. Cheapest electricity in US; attract new manufacturing to region 3. Environ. & human cost a. Dams reduced Columbia River lakes b. Fed. water CA – few large farmers = rich; farm workers (Mex.) – low wages, pesticide contact bad health c. CO River doesn’t empty into Pacific build up salt deposits E. A New Deal for Indians 1. Reservations – worst poverty; infant mortality 2x white pop.; alcoholism, diseases increase; ½ landless; Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) = corruption & mismanagement 2. Merriam Report – (1928) Institute for Government Research – BIA mismanagement Hoover admin. doesn’t reform 3. John Collier – (1933) head of BIA – FDR tried to reform 4. Indian Reorganization Act ( IRA ) (1934) – 181 tribes in; 77 tribes not 4.a.a. Reverse allotment provisions of Dawes Severalty Act (1887) 10
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