Open Door Policy: In hopes of protecting the Chinese market for U.S. exports, Secretary of State John Hay demanded in 1899 that Chinese trade be open to all nations; Keep China open to trade with all countries equally
19.White man’s burden: Supposed responsibility of White people to influence nonwhites of their culture20.Anti-Imperialist League: A union of writers and social reformers who believed American energies should be directed at home, businessmen fearful of the cost of maintaining overseas outposts, and racists who did not wish to bring non-white populations into the United States Chapter 18 1. Muckraking: Writers who exposed corruption and abuses in politics, business, meatpacking, child labor, and more, primarily in the first decade of the twentieth century; their popular books and magazine articles spurred public interest in reform. 2. Ellis Island: New York immigration center 3. Angel Island: San Francisco immigration center 4. Fordism: Early twentieth-century term describing the economic system pioneered by Ford Motor Company based on high wages and mass consumption 5. Scientific Management: A program that sought to streamline production and boost profits by systematically controlling costs and work practices 6. Industrial Workers of the World (IWW): Radical union organized in Chicago in 1905 and nicknamed the Wobblies; its opposition to World War I led to its destruction by the federal government under the Espionage Act. Included non whites 7. Collective Bargaining: The process of negotiations between an employer and a group of employees to regulate working conditions. 8. New Feminism: Women's emancipation movement in the social, economic, cultural, and sexual spheres 9. Birth Control Movement: A reform movement espousing the idea that right to control of one's body included the ability to enjoy an active sexual life without necessarily bearing women. Emma Goldman and Margaret Sanger were the leaders of this movement 10. Society of American Indians: Founded in 1911, the Society of American Indians was a reform organization typical of the era. It brought together Indian intellectuals to promote discussion of the plight of Native Americans in the hope that public exposure would be the first step toward remedying injustice. 11. Social Legislation: A term originating in Germany that referred to governmental action to address urban problems and the insecurities of working-class life 12. 17 th Amendment: (1913) Progressive reform that required U.S. senators to be elected directly by voters; previously, senators were chosen by state legislatures 13. Maternalist Reforms: Policies such as mothers' pensions designed to improve the living standards of poor mothers and children. 14. Muller vs. Oregon: A famous brief citing scientific and sociological studies to demonstrate that because they had less strength and endurance than men, long hours of labor were dangerous for women, while their unique ability to bear children gave the government a legitimate interest in their working conditions. Some women opposed as it contradicted the progressive reforms to
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