IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

Microgrids controlled in this way have the features

Info icon This preview shows pages 53–56. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Microgrids controlled in this way have the features of connecting and adjusting to the main grid intelligently, showing and using the input and output status of batteries, and controlling power smoothly in an emergency (including isolating the microgrid from the main grid if needed). These are the characteristics needed in Smart Microgrids, regardless of EES scale or applications. 8 Note that the term “microgrid” has been the subject of various specific definitions, none of which is assumed here.
Image of page 53

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
54 S E C T I O N 3 Markets for EES 2) Some consumers prefer to use their own renewable energy sources. EES can reduce the mismatch between their power demand and their own power generation. 3) In specific situations such as interruption of power supply, most on-site renewable generators have problems in isolated operation because of the uncontrollable generation output. EES may be a solution. Figure 3-14 schematically represents the smart house, and Figure 3-15 maps a possible energy architecture for it. In smart houses mainly lead acid systems are used currently, but in the future Li-ion or NaNiCl batteries in particular may be installed because of their high cycle lifetime and their ability to deliver high peak power. 3.2.4 Smart House The concept of the Smart House is proposed in order to use energy more efficiently, economically and reliably in residential areas. EES technologies are expected to play an important role. 1) The consumer cost of electricity consists of a demand charge (kW) and an energy charge (kWh). Load levelling by EES can suppress the peak demand; however, charge/discharge loss will simultaneously increase the amount of electricity consumed. Consumers may be able to reduce electricity costs by optimizing EES operation. Figure 3-14 – The Smart House (Fraunhofer ISE)
Image of page 54
55 3.2.5 Electric vehicles Electric vehicles (EVs) were first developed in the 19th century but, since vehicles with conventional combustion engines are much cheaper and have other advantages such as an adequate driving range of around 500 km, electric vehicles have not been introduced in large quantities to the market. The main obstacle for building electricity-driven vehicles has been the storage of energy in batteries. Due to their low capacity it has not been possible to achieve driving ranges that would be accepted by the consumer. The emerging development of battery technology in recent years presents new possibilities, with batteries displaying increased energy densities. In the transitional period of the next few years, mainly hybrid cars will come onto the market. They combine an internal combustion engine with an electric motor, so that one system is able to compensate for the disadvantages of the other. An example is the low efficiency in partial-load states of an internal combustion engine, which can be compensated for by the electric motor. Electric drive-trains are particularly well suited to road vehicles due to their precise response behaviour, their high efficiency and the relatively simple handling of the energy storage. In spite of the
Image of page 55

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 56
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern