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12 as you know is a variety of proof surrogate the

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▲12. “As you know” is a variety of proof surrogate. The remainder is a rhetorical analogy, in this case a comparison. 13. “Mere” is often a downplayer, but in this case we wouldn’t classify it as such. Fifty stocks is not so great a number of them. ▲14. Proof surrogate. A claim that there are “two kinds of arguments” in favor of a multiverse does not actually provide those reasons. (The article did not go on to give the arguments.) 15. “Bald and naked” are dysphemistic here. 16. One might suggest that the questions in the last line make suggestions without doing so explicitly, but we’re willing to say there isn’t much in the way of slanters in this report. ▲17. Lots of them here! To begin, “orgy” is a dysphemism; “self-appointed” is a downplayer. The references to yurts and teepees is ridicule, and “grant-maintained” is a downplayer. The rest of it employs a heavy dose of sarcasm. 18. “Awash in violence” is a strong emotive phrase, if not exactly a dysphemism; “stamp out” is dysphemism for get rid of; “death squads” is a dysphemism (although groups whose main job was murdering the opposition did indeed flourish in the region). IM – 5 | 6
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Exercise 5-23 ▲1. Superior? In what way? More realistic character portrayal? Better expression of emotion? Probably the claim means only “I like Paltrow more than I like Blanchett.” 2. Than who? Presumably, than nonblondes. But does the speaker mean that all blondes have more fun than nonblondes? Surely not. Only some blondes have more fun? Maybe only good- looking blondes have more fun? But mightn’t nice-looking brunettes have more fun than homely blondes? This claim doesn’t make much sense and shouldn’t be taken seriously. 3. We’d have to know how “smarter” was measured before we knew what to make of this. ▲4. Fine, but don’t infer that they both grade the same. Maybe Smith gives 10 percent As and 10 percent Fs, 20 percent Bs and 20 percent Ds, and 40 percent Cs, whereas Jones gives everyone a C. Who do you think is the more discriminating grader, given this breakdown? 5. Without breaking down into categories of crime, this kind of statistic is of little use. In recent years violent crime has gone down markedly, although this has not been true of minor property crimes. 6. More talented in what way? It may be that many classical musicians are unable to improvise, because they play from written music. (We don’t know this for a fact, of course.) And lumping all classical and rock musicians together makes the claim pretty useless. Are we comparing a drummer in an orchestra with a pianist in a popular band? ▲7. Well, first of all, what is “long-distance”? Second, and more important, how is endurance measured? People do debate such issues, but the best way to begin a debate on this point would be by spelling out what you mean by “requires more endurance.” 8. We’d need to know what was classified as profanity (and “hard profanity”), and we’d need to know how it was measured in the monitoring program.
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