1 1 He made his way into a virgin cave to find within it the fossil skull of a

1 1 he made his way into a virgin cave to find within

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1 1 He made his way into a virgin cave to find within it the fossil skull of a Neanderthalian. In Dr. Weidenreich's opinion this skull had been mutilated at death in the same manner as that practiced by the Sinanthrops. As a pendant to this list of prehistoric crime I would add two further instances. Rhodesian man represents a very ancient African type; his fossil skull shows a healing perforated wound apparently caused by a sharp pointed weapon. 1 2 The second people we are now concerned with are the Natufians, whose fossil remains were discovered by Professor Dorothy Garrod 1 3 at the foot of Mt. Carmel in 1929. Their importance lies in the fact that they represent the people of Palestine at or just before the dawn of civilization. The skulls and skeletons of some of them bear marks of violence inflicted at death. The conclusion we must draw from the evidence just cited concerning the nature of our early forerunners is that, if some were kindly and peaceful, there were others who were certainly cruel and violent. We must again examine the mental qualities which Elliot Smith ascribed to primitive man. In the forefront of living examples he placed the Punans, 1 4 a people of Mongoloid affinities which inhabits jungle tracts in the interior of Borneo. As is the way with all primitive peoples, they live in small local groups, each numbering from thirty to fifty souls. Each group claims the area in which it lives as its own. From the natural produce of its area each group derives its sustenance. All speak dialects of the same tongue. Each group recognizes an affinity to other Punan groups and separates itself from surrounding peoples which are 197. not of this affinity. Each group is self governed. Here is Elliot Smith's description of the Punans: "These people are incredibly shy, and seem always to be on the alert and prepared for an unpleasant emergency. They are like wild animals timid but friendly, and ready at any moment to fight for life. A Punan will never wantonly slay or attack a man, and never goes on the warpath unless he happens to be caught by some other tribe and compelled to fight. Nevertheless, if he is attacked he will not only protect himself with vigor, but he will also call other Punans to his assistance." 1 5 The Punans, then, are not pacifists; their behavior, like that of all the other peaceful primitive peoples cited by Elliot Smith, is regulated by the dual code. Within his group a
man's conduct is controlled by the code of amity; outside his group by the code of enmity. If his own life or liberty is in danger, or if the life or liberty of his group is threatened, then the enmity code comes into action automatically; anger and resentment well up within him and vent themselves in violence. The Punan differs from the more warlike tribesmen who surround him in possessing a disposition which strongly favors the code of amity, and is driven to the code of enmity only in cases of dire necessity; whereas, in the case of his warlike neighbors, the code of enmity is given a freer rein because it has at call a higher development of courage, pride, and enterprise. We must

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