The corpora cavernosa are two cylinders covered with

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- The corpora cavernosa are two cylinders covered with a fibrous sleeve that pulls tight when filled with blood and stiffens the penis - The corpus spongiosum is a cylinder that remains soft and spongy during an erection - Is also known as a delivery system. The Scrotum - Two layers make up the scrotum: another layer of skin with a little hair and an inner layer of involuntary muscle called the dartos - The dartos muscle makes the testes contract with cold - Since the testes were formed in the abdomen, they respond to injury or compression like other innervated abdominal tissue. Thus an injury in the scrotum is felt in the abdominal cavity. The Testes - Male Reproductive organs that secrete male sex hormones (androgens) and produce sperm - Spermatic cords suspend each testis in the scrotum and contains the vas deferens, blood vessels, and nerves. - Cells of the testes o Leydig cells (interstitial cells) - Surrounded by layer of muscle called the cremaster muscle that lifts the testicles as they contract. The Seminiferous Tubules and the Epididymis - The seminiferous tubules: live inside the testes and along with the interstitial cells, produce and store sperms. - The epididymis: covers part of each testicle. Matures and stores sperm The Vas Deferens and the Seminal Vesicles - The vas deferens: carries sperm to the prostate gland where they enter the urethra - The seminal vesicles: contribute up to 70% of the ejaculate fluid. The Prostate Gland and the Cowper’s Gland - The prostate gland: secretes a thick, milky, alkaline fluid, resulting in a chemically safe environment to maintain sperm. - Cowper’s gland: secrete pre-cum that prepares the urethra for the ejaculate. Circumcision - Surgical cutting away or removal of the foreskin (prepuce) - Originally done for cultural and religious reasons - Worldwide circa 30% of men - Muslims account for 70% - US 57% - Canada varies by region
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- Canadian medicare does not cover circumcision $250-500 Pros Cons - Decrease in infant UTI’s - Decrease in some STIs such as HIV and genital warts - Decrease in adult penile cancer - Prevents or corrects phimosis - Procedure entails risks such as infection, hemorrhage, shock and penile mutilation. - Heightened pain response to vaccinations - Current studies at McGill report no differences in penile sensitivity or arousal response in circumcised or uncircumcised males. Cancer of the Testes - A disease of young men - First sign- painless lump in the testes, or slight enlargement or change in consistency of the testes, pain in lower abdomen or groin - Diagnosis- physician exam or testicular self-exam and ultrasound - Causes: unknown Chapter 5 – Sex and Gender Identity Terminology - Sex: physical characteristics that are often used to define people as male or female. Though genitalia are most often used to assign sex, this method is not completely reliable - Gender Expression: (sometimes gender for short) will refer to all the characteristics, traits, apparel, mannerism and other things that we understand as masculine, feminine or androgynous - Gender Identity: The range of experiences of man, woman, trans or otherwise. Gender identity is best thought of as a range of identities on the spectrum.
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