stages of the Indus Civilization. In Sub-period IIA, the pottery is impeccably Harappan and also includes the micaceous red ware and the black-and-red ware of Lothal affiliation; in Sub-period IIB the fabric of the pottery becomes coarser, and forms like beakers and goblets, already scarce in the preceding sub-period, were almost discarded. In Sub-period IIC new forms and fabrics were introduced. The last cultural period at the site is marked by the dominant use of the lustrous red ware which in fact began to be made in Sub-period IIC itself. The ware was often painted in black with less ambitious designs and animals like bulls, running deer, rows of birds, etc. Among the noteworthy finds was a terracotta figurine of a horse. Faience and steatite were almost unknown in the period. Prabhas Patan is situated on the south-western coast of Saurashatra at the mouth of the Haranya river near the port town of Vereval. 70 The excavation revealed a fivefold sequence of cultures of which the earlier three are Chalcolithic. These were marked by the use of what is termed Prabhas ware – a mossy grey-coloured pottery, painted in purple or dark brown with a design ornament usually set in panels or registers. The most predom- inant shape is a sub-spherical bowl which occurs in all sizes. Among the Harappan forms were the dish-on-stand and the stud-handled bowl. Late Harappan pottery of Rangpur Sub- period IIB was also in use, but there were no beakers, goblets or terracotta cakes. In the later phases, the lustrous red ware also came to be used. They used blades of chalcedony and even imported a few of obsidian. Besides they also used cubical chert weights and segmented faience beads. A unique seal amulet of steatite, obtained from levels ascribable to the later half of the second millennium b . c . and engraved on one side with seven stylized deer and on the other with five, deserves special mention. 70 Pandya, 1957 . 302 © UNESCO 1996
ISBN 978-92-3-102719-2 Lothal and other southern sites Rojdi is situated on the left bank of the Bhadar river about 55 km south of Rajkot. 71 The ancient site is thought to have been girt with a fortification wall built with large boulders. The excavations provided a sequence of two phases, of which the earlier was Harappan and the latter showed links with Prabhas, Rangpur IIB and IIC. An important evidence of the Harappan connection was the discovery of a convex-sided bowl inscribed with four Indus characters. Desalpur is located on the northern bank of the one depredatory stream Bamu-chels in Kutch. 72 The excavation revealed a 3-m-deep cultural deposit, of which the upper 75 cm belonged to the early historic period and the remaining 2.25 m to the Chalcolithic, further divided into Sub-period IA as mature Harappan and Sub-period IB as late Harappan. The Harappan settlement, measuring 130 × 100 m, was contained by a fortification wall built of partially dressed stones and reinforced with rectangular salients. A partially exposed structure in the central part of the settlement may have served as a partition wall separating the citadel part from the residential area. In Sub-period IA, besides the typical Harappan pottery and other finds, sherds of the so-called reserved slip ware were also found. In
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