Implications of zero population growth seen as beneficial from ecological

Implications of zero population growth seen as

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Implications of zero population growth seen as beneficial from ecological perspective & devastating fromeconomic perspective-Ecological perspective: declining population smaller ecological footprint-Economically: sell goods & services to national population & see economic growth only if population is growing or can convince consumers to buy increasing amounts of goodsoUnlikely in declining populations, but can sell to other countries if represent consumer markets for usWorldwide, fertility is clearly declining-Considerable variation: human development indices track education & health & women’s labour force participation-Developed countries have been below replacement level since 1970 & developing countries approaching replacement levelPopulation for any year defined by:Population (Jan 2010) = Population (Jan 2009) + (Births + Immigration) – (Deaths + Emigration)Assumption that immigration could solve both short-term labour shortages & longer-term fertility problems may be too optimistic-Visible minority women’s fertility in Canada falls below replacement level-Being in first immigration generation explains variation in fertility among visible minority groups-Immigration may not address fertility, does address labour shortages-Germany: multiculturalism doesn’t work to attract immigrantsData Box 6.1: Aboriginal People Surpass One-Million MarkAboriginal population has grown faster than non-Aboriginal populationTHE TRANSITION TO PARENTHOODSome differences b/w desired & actual fertility results from: delaying marriage & fertility to acquire post-secondary education & cement one’s workforce participation & experience
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Delay first birth until feel financially stable & living in environment conducive to having childTransition to parenthood is great interest b/c:1.Transition represents assumption of most responsible roles in family, those of mother & fathera.Role defined by both formal & informal social normsb.Roles are informally defined by expectations that parents will nurture childrenc.Roles also formally & legally defined by laws governing parental abandonment, child neglect & abuse2.Transition usually accompanied by significant declines in most areas of marriagea.Marriages w/ child more stable than marriages w/o child at same duration of time, may contain greater conflict & less love than was case before child joined familyGetting Pregnant and PregnancyCourse of marriage & some child outcomes tied to “style” couple adopts toward pregnancyThose who plan to initiate sex w/ idea of having child are in many ways better prepared throughout other phases of transition to parenthoodSome stop using birth control & adopt “whatever happens” attitude less prepared through transition to parenthood (similar to sliders in cohabitation)Problems in conceiving child are more noticeable to those who carefully plan intercourse during ovulationCauses for involuntary infertility:1.Lower live sperm counts across males a.Causes: tight-fitting briefs & plastic bottles containing synthetic estrogens2.
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