ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

One way of considering what managers do is to look at

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One way of considering what managers do is to look at the skills or competencies they need to successfully achieve their goals. Robert Katz has identified three essential management skills. Technical skills encompass the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. When you think of the skills held by professionals such as engineers or surgeons, you typically focus on their technical skills. Through extensive formal education, they have learned the special knowledge and practices of their field. All jobs require some specialized expertise and many people develop technical skills on the job. The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people , both individually and in groups, describes human skills. Many people are technically proficient but interpersonally incompetent. They might, for example, be poor listeners, unable to understand the needs of others, or have difficulty managing conflicts. Since managers get things done through other people, they must have good human skills to communicate, motivate, and delegate. Managers must have the mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations. These are conceptual skills. Decision making, for instance, requires managers to spot problems, identify alternatives that can correct them, evaluate these alternatives, and select the best one. Managers can be technically and interpersonally competent, yet still fail because of an inability to rationally process and interpret information. A systematic study is looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence. Behavior is generally predictable, and the systematic study of behavior is a means to making reasonably accurate predictions. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a philosophy of management that is driven by the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through the continuous improvement of all organizational processes. TQM maintains an intense focus on the customer, a concern for continual improvement, accurate performance measurements, and the empowerment of employees. Work force diversity is the increasing heterogeneity of organizations with the inclusion of different groups. Work force diversity means that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity. The term includes anyone who varies from the so-called norm. In addition to the more obvious groups such as women, African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, the term also includes the physically disabled, gays and lesbians, and the elderly.
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Management is no longer constrained by national borders. This globalization affects a manager’s people skills in at least two ways. First, some managers may find themselves in a foreign assignment and have to manage a work force that is likely to be very different in needs, aspirations, and attitudes from the ones typically found in the U.S. Second, even in their own country, managers will find themselves working with bosses, peers, and subordinates who were born and raised in different cultures.
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