10 describe the structure and function of telomeres

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10. Describe the structure and function of telomeres. Explain the possible significance of telomerase in germ cells and cancerous cell. 11. Explain the reasoning that led Archibald Garrod to first suggest that genes dictate phenotypes through enzymes. 12. Desc ribe Beadle and Tatum’s experiments with Neurospora and explain the contribution they made to our understanding of how genes control metabolism. 13. Di stinguish between the “one gen e-one enzym e” hypothesis and the “one gene -one polypeptide” hypothesis and expl ain why the original hypothesis was changed. 14. Explain how RNA differs from DNA. 15. Distinguish between transcription and translation. 16. Compare where transcription and translation occur in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes. 17. Define codon and explain the relationship between the linear sequence of codons on mRNA and the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide. 18. Explain what it means to say that the genetic code is redundant and unambiguous. 19. Explain the significance of the reading frame during translation.
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AP Biology 2 20. Explain how RNA polymerase recognizes where transcription should begin. Describe the promoter, the terminator, and the transcription unit. 21. Explain the general process of transcription, including the three major steps of initiation, elongation, and termination. 22. Explain how RNA is modified after transcription in eukaryotic cells. 23. Define and explain the role of ribozyme . 24. Describe the functional and evolutionary significance of introns. 25. Describe the structure and functions of tRNA. 26. Explain the significance of wobble. 27. Explain how tRNA is joined to the appropriate amino acid. 28. Describe the structure and functions of ribosomes.
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