Are greenhouse gases used or generated in the primary process If CFCs or HCFCs

Are greenhouse gases used or generated in the primary

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Are greenhouse gases used or generated in the primary process? If CFCs or HCFCs are used in the primary process, have alternatives been thoroughly investigated? Source: SLCA Book, by Graedel Primary Process/Gaseous Emissions (3,5)
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L03 Slide 53 Blast Furnace Iron SO 2 , NOx, and CO Iron Ore Coke Oxygen Furnace Steel Oxygen CO 2 and CO Steel via Blast Furnace Plastic PET Production Plastic Resins Ethylene Glycol Terephtalic Acid Primary Process/Gaseous Emissions (3,5) Toxic VOCs
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L03 Slide 54 Steel via blast furnace Blast furnace ironmaking generates large quantities of sulfur and nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide Oxygen furnace releases lots of CO and CO 2 Score: _____ PET making Air emissions of toxic monomer and volatile solvents Large amounts of hazardous air pollutants Score: _____ Primary Process/Gaseous Emissions (3,5)
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L03 Slide 55 Coke Making Coke VOC and CO Coal Steel via Blast Furnace: Cokemaking Plastic: Ethylene Glycol Production EG Production Ethylene Glycol Ethylene Coke Oven Gas Oil Complementary Process/Gaseous Residues (4,5)
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L03 Slide 56 Steel via blast furnace: Cokemaking Cokemaking is a major source of VOC and carbon monoxide Some of these gases are recovered Score: _____ PET making: Ethylene Glycol Ethylene glycol (i.e., antifreeze) is made from ethylene and is relatively non-toxic at low concentrations Score: _____ Complementary Process/Gaseous Residues (4,5)
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L03 Slide 57 Your Project For each alternative, describe the major processes occurring in each life stage. Include qualitative inventory flow diagrams to show material & energy inputs and residues. Use the appropriate checklist to fill in the SLCA matrices for each alternative. Discuss the results: For each alternative, highlight the key life stages and environmental stressors with the most significant contributions to overall environmental impact.
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January 25 & 28, 2019 L03 Part 3: Quantitative LCA
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L03 Slide 59 Life Cycle Assessment Framework Goal and scope definition Inventory analysis Impact assessment Interpretation Source: ISO 14040:2006
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L03 Slide 60 Life Cycle Assessment Framework Goal and scope definition Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Interpretation
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L03 Slide 61 Cause-Effect Chain Specific to an emissions example
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L03 Slide 62 Agents Midpoints Endpoints Life Cycle Inventory Life cycle Impact Assessment
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L03 Slide 63 Inventory Analysis Determines material consumption, energy consumption, and residue emission rates at each life stage: 1. Detailed measurements 2. General LCA Models o Based on process details (e.g. SimaPro, GaBi, openLCA) o Based on costs (e.g. EIO-LCA) 3. Sector LCA Models (e.g. GHGenius, GREET)
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L03 Slide 64 Recall: Mercury Emissions from Light Bulbs The authors obtained data using SimaPro modelling software
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L03 Slide 65 Inventory of Inputs and Outputs Inputs Materials Natural resources Pre-processed materials Chemicals Energy Electricity Fuel Heat Outputs Materials For next life stage For recycling
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  • Fall '09
  • MURRAYTHOMSON

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